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World History. 5/19/14. Warm-up. Write the major event regarding French government in each of these years. 1830 1832 1848 1852 1870. Franco-Prussian War. 1868 Spanish Revolution: overthrow the Queen, meaning they need a new monarch.

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warm up
  • Write the major event regarding French government in each of these years.
    • 1830
    • 1832
    • 1848
    • 1852
    • 1870
franco prussian war
Franco-Prussian War
  • 1868 Spanish Revolution: overthrow the Queen, meaning they need a new monarch.
  • They search for a new monarch—the French don’t want it to be a German prince.
  • Tensions between France and Prussia lead to war—German states support Prussia
  • This 1870 war finalizes Prussian unification into…GERMANY
what if
  • Napoleon III had ignored Wilhelm I’s warmongering & just waited to see what happened in Spain?
  • Wilhelm & Bismarck may not have seized French land or united the German Empire—no World War I or World War II!
but let s backtrack a little
But let’s backtrack a little…
  • Congress of Vienna (1815): meeting establishing peace after Napoleon
  • Led by Klemens von Metternich
klemens von metternich
Klemens von Metternich
  • Wealthy politician—wanted to return Europe to pre-1789 conditions.
  • Against republics, voting, & freedom of the people.
  • Why does he hate these new governments?
impact of congress of vienna metternich
Impact of Congress Of Vienna & Metternich
  • Attempt to balance powers within Europe—boundaries are changed to keep another superpower from emerging.
  • Metternich’s policies of oppression and absolutism lead to revolutions around the continent.
prince metternich
Prince Metternich
  • “The old Europe is nearing its end.”
4 th period
4th period
  • After the Congress of Vienna in ____, Klemens von Metternich encouraged __________________________. This led to __________________________.
post napoleonic europe
Post-Napoleonic Europe
  • Read about Post-Napoleonic Europe.
  • Summarize each heading in a few sentences.
choose one of the following
Choose one of the following
  • Create a poster for Young Italy.
    • What is your cause?
    • Who is involved? Who are you recruiting?
  • Write your own version of the Blood & Iron speech.
    • What were Bismarck’s opinions at the time?
    • How would he have expressed them?
essential question 1
Essential Question 1
  • Which leaders were most pivotal in changing the political organization of Europe after Napoleon?
pre wwi events
Pre-WWI events
  • Lots of events around the globe—keep the EQ in mind.
the ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire never returned to its glory after Suleiman the Magnificent
  • What would happen to the balance of power if they collapsed? This is called the Eastern Question.
  • France & Great Britain prop up the empire.
crimean war
Crimean War
  • Ottomans control Jerusalem & give Roman Catholics control of the holy places there.
  • Orthodox Russia invades the Ottoman Empire. France & England help the Ottomans.
  • Lasts two years—Russians lose in a bloody war.
  • First use of railways, telegraphs, & ironclads!
  • Florence Nightingale: famous British nurse who saved many. 10x lower death rate than other hospitals.
balkan wars
Balkan Wars
  • Rise of nationalism led to discontent in the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1912 & 1913: four Balkan nations win independence from the Ottomans (Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, & Montenegro)
britain in india
Britain in India
  • Mughal Empire is collapsing and Europeans have new, effective weapons.
  • British East India Company (a business!) controls India.
  • Introduce the English language, ban Indian customs, and spread Christianity.
  • 1857: Sepoy Mutiny (sepoys = Indian soldiers in British army)
    • Two years of fighting before the British government steps in and rules India directly.
british raj
British Raj
  • Raj: Hindi word for “rule”
  • British Raj industrializes India—railroads needed for trade.
  • Indian nationalism begins; resentful of British changes
  • Indian National Congress founded to request better representation
  • Nationalism becomes radical—swadeshi (boycott of British goods) from 1905-1908.
  • Muslim League: Muslim Indians, not Hindus like INC, to advocate for India
  • Indian National Congress + Muslim League = desire for independence in coming years.
china foreign influence
China & foreign influence
  • Qing dynasty is losing power; British begin to exert influence over China.
  • British trade opium (drug) to China in return for tea and other goods. Leads to Opium Wars, which expand foreign influence in China.
  • Rebellions in 1850s against the Qing: Taiping Rebellion
    • Hong Xiuquan vs. Qing leaders; lasted from 1850-1864 and killed 20 million Chinese
  • Qing come out on top and decide to reform government; leads to industrialization
chinese rebellions
Chinese Rebellions
  • Boxer Rebellion: 1899-1900
    • Hatred of foreign influence which led to killing of missionaries and Christian converts.
    • Government supports Boxers, but they are defeated by an alliance of foreigner armies.
  • Xinhai (1911) Revolution: led by Sun Yat-sen
    • Belief in nationalism, democracy, & unity
    • Qing overthrown due to weakness, resentment, & foreign influence
    • Republic of China founded in 1912
meiji restoration
Meiji Restoration
  • In Japan, the Tokugawa Shogunate allows too much foreign influence. This leads to the rule of Emperor Meiji & the Meiji Restoration.
  • Beginning in 1868, Japan begins to industrialize and build an empire.
  • Japan’s economic power rivals the U.S.; they defeat China and Russia in wars to become the most powerful Asian country.
scramble for africa
Scramble for Africa
  • European countries try to gain political control of the continent from 1880-1914.
  • Imperialism & nationalism fueled the desire of European countries to gain more colonies than others.
  • 1884-1885: Berlin Conference—European leaders divide up Africa based on their own interests. Don’t pay attention to ethnic divisions.
  • Africans resist: Shaka & Zulus lose to British; Menelik II & Ethiopians maintain independence against the Italians.
berlin conference
Berlin Conference
  • Yellow: Belgian
  • Red: British
  • Blue: French
  • Green: German
  • Neon Green: Italian
  • Purple: Portuguese
  • Pink: Spanish
foreign influence in latin america
Foreign influence in Latin America
  • Monroe Doctrine wanted to keep Europe out of the Americas.
  • Spanish colony of Cuba begins fighting for independence; advocate Jose Marti is killed.
  • Yellow journalism (sensationalist) is published against Spain.
  • U.S. battleship explodes in Havana, Cuba—Spanish obviously blamed.
  • Spanish-American War (1898): Spanish destroyed in three months.
  • U.S. (ironically) makes Cuba a protectorate, rather than an independent state.
american imperialism
American imperialism
  • Roosevelt Corollary: “Chronic wrongdoing…in the Western Hemisphere…may force the United States, however reluctantly…to the exercise of an international police power.”
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick.
  • Panama Canal—U.S. helps Panama achieve independence so they can build the canal & save 8,000 miles on journey from NYC to San Francisco.
russian conditions
Russian conditions
  • Russia still ruled by tsars—absolute power.
  • Agricultural society (not yet industrialized); serfs are abused
  • Pogroms occur—waves of violent attacks on Jews (blamed for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II)
russo japanese war
Russo-Japanese War
  • Japan’s empire views Russia as a threat.
  • Two sides are competing for Manchuria and Korea.
  • Japan attacks Russia.
  • Tsar Nicholas II continues fighting for too long; people are unhappy and Russia loses.
russian revolution of 1905
Russian Revolution of 1905
  • Socialist ideas of Marx spread to Russia
  • Vladimir Lenin begins to call for an end to the autocratic government.
  • Jan. 22, 1905: “Bloody Sunday”
    • Russian protestors fired upon; hundreds killed
  • Strikes shut down the Trans-Siberian Railroad
  • Nicholas II writes the October Manifesto—more freedom for Russians & a representative body called the Duma.
  • Nicholas II still retains a lot of power, though…
essential question 2
Essential Question 2
  • What factors fueled events in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
main factors
MAIN factors
  • There were four MAIN factors that led up to World War I:
    • Militarism
    • Alliances
    • Imperialism
    • Nationalism