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World History

World History. Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution. Causes: Increasing population Children were a high % of total population. Growth also contributed to migration. Industrial Revolution. Agricultural (revolution) #2 New food & forage crops

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World History

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  1. World History Industrial Revolution

  2. Industrial Revolution • Causes: • Increasing population • Children were a high % of total population. • Growth also contributed to migration.

  3. Industrial Revolution • Agricultural (revolution) #2 • New food & forage crops • Only the wealthy could afford new crops, new farming methods ---Enclosure • Result: Unemployed farmers

  4. Industrial Revolution • Trade/Inventions • Increased demand led to increased production • Added craftsmen to workshops & used Putting-out system.

  5. Industrial Revolution • Economic & population growth • Desire to use new ideas • Mining & metal industries • Largest merchant marine • Fluid social structure

  6. Industrial Revolution • Britain also had: • Good water transportation system • Unified market • Highly developed commercial sector

  7. Industrial Revolution • Continental Europe experienced similar circumstances but delayed due to war, lack of markets, management skills, & no desire to experiment with new technologies.

  8. Industrial Revolution • Mass production – pottery • Demand created for porcelain. • 1759 Josiah Wedgewood used division of labor & molds rather than potters wheel to mass produce @ low cost.

  9. Industrial Revolution • Spinning Jenny – 1764 • Water frame – 1769 and invented by Richard Arkwright. • Mule – 1785 Samuel Crompton – better, faster.

  10. Industrial Revolution • Mechanization led to efficiency and lower prices. • Cotton became America’s most valuable crop developed for export to England.

  11. Industrial Revolution • In the 18th century a series of inventions including coke and puddling made it possible for the British to produce large amounts of cheap iron.

  12. Industrial Revolution • Increased production & lower cost led people to use iron for many things including bridge building and construction of the Crystal Palace.

  13. Industrial Revolution • Interchangeable parts – adopted in firearms, farm equipment & sewing machine industries in the 19th century. • American system of manufactures.

  14. Industrial Revolution • Between 1702-1713 Thomas Newcomen developed a crude steam engine used to pump water out of coal mines. • *******************

  15. Industrial Revolution • 1769 – James Watt improved Newcomen’s engine. Provided power allowing factories to be built where no other sources of power were located.

  16. Industrial Revolution • 1780s – steam engine used to power riverboats in France & America. • 1830s – more efficient engines used for oceangoing vessels

  17. Industrial Revolution • Trevithick/Stephenson build lighter, more powerful steam engines to power locomotives & replaced horses.

  18. Industrial Revolution • 1825-1845 Britain & railway mania. • 1840s & 1850s in the U.S. • Railways connect country & mid-west to agricultural development & in Europe trigger industrialization.

  19. Industrial Revolution • 1837 – Wheatstone & Cook’s five needle telegraph in England. • Also in 1837 – Morse Code; system of dashes and dots in the United States.

  20. Industrial Revolution • Rapid growth in cities & urban areas resulted in overcrowding, pollution, and disease for the poor. • Reforms did not occur until the mid-19th century.

  21. Industrial Revolution • Deforestation con’t. • Industrialization provided substitutes for wood. • New transportation systems changed rural life.

  22. Industrial Revolution • Most jobs offered were for unskilled labor. • Increased rate of child labor; restricted by the British in mid-19th century. • New labor source: the Irish

  23. Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution increased demand for cotton, sugar & coffee, and prolonged slavery in the U.S. & Caribbean and extended slavery to Brazil.

  24. Industrial Revolution • Disparities in income . • Worker’s standards of living did not improve until 1850s. • Beneficiaries: middle class

  25. Industrial Revolution • Adam Smith – laissez faire • The Wealth of Nations 1776 • Gov’t. shouldn’t interfere in the business realm. • Bentham/List: gov’t needs to manage economy & social problems.

  26. Industrial Revolution • Malthus/Ricardo: poverty of working class was due to over-population & should be addressed through restraint, not the government.

  27. Industrial Revolution • Positivism: scientific method solves social problems. • Fourier – ideal society has no capitalists. • Robert Owen - prosperity for all. Served as an example for reforms.

  28. Industrial Revolution • Protests and reforms move from individual resistance to collective action, including unions. British legislation included Factory Act, Mines Act, & repeal of Corn Laws.

  29. Industrial Revolution • Russia: no middle class. They were afraid of using Western ideas. Imported industrial goods & exported grain & timber. Fell behind Europe.

  30. Industrial Revolution • Egypt undertook industrialization program funded by wheat & cotton exports & protected by high tariffs on imports. Became dependent on the British instead of the Ottomans.

  31. Industrial Revolution • Machines forced Indian spinners out of business • India became an importer of British goods & exporter of raw materials. • Britain did nothing to encourage Indian industry.

  32. CONCLUSION • Between 1760 & 1851 new technologies greatly increased humans’ control over nature & transformed the environment.

  33. CONCLUSION • Increased disparities between individuals & societies, brought changes in work & family life. • Society was slow to address abuses.

  34. CONCLUSION • By the 1850s the Industrial Revolution had spread to Western Europe & the U.S. & was contributing to a shift in the historic balance of power between Europe & China.

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