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World History

World History

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World History

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  1. World History Chapter 4 The Rise of Ancient Greece John 3:16

  2. Chapter 4, Section 1, Beginnings The Aegean Area Aegean Civilizations Poets and Heroes A Family of Deities Overview John 3:16

  3. Objectives Understand how being close to the sea made the Greeks seafarers Know where and how the early civilizations of Greece developed John 3:16

  4. Terms to Know Labyrinth: A maze; e.g. passages or hallways twisting and turning in all directions Bard: A singing storyteller. Bards were used in the “dark age’” to keep traditions alive. John 3:16

  5. People to Meet Sir Arthur Evans The Minoans The Mycenaeans Homer Heinrich Schliemann John 3:16

  6. Places to Locate Crete Mycenae John 3:16

  7. Did You Know? One of the adventures in Homer’s “Odyssey” involved a one-eyed giant—called a Cyclops—who shut Odysseus in his cave and blocked the entrance with a huge rock. Odysseus made the Cyclops drunk, blinded him by driving a burning stake into his eye while he slept, and escaped by clinging to the belly of a sheep let out to pasture. John 3:16

  8. The Aegean Area Greece is made up largely of low-lying rugged mountains and a long, indented coastline; the mountains both protected and isolated Ancient Greeks on the mainland, who never united under one government. The Greeks did speak one language and had the same religion Many Greeks earned their livings on the sea; the mild climate allowed Greeks to spend much of their time outdoors John 3:16

  9. The Aegean Area John 3:16 Greeks turned to become fishers, traders and pirates. The climate allowed people to spend time outdoors, assembling for meetings and performing plays.

  10. Aegean Civilizations The Minoans Greek myth referred to the existence of an early civilization on the island of Crete; archaeologists have since unearthed remains of this Minoan civilization, which flourished from about 2500 to 1450 B.C. The Minoans were the first in the Aegean Region. British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans who discovered Minoan remains about 1900 A.D. John 3:16

  11. The Minoans (cont) The Minoan civilization, which earned its living from sea trade, reached its peak around 1600 B.C.; it collapsed about 250 years later. Both men and women curled their hair, bedecked themselves with gold jewelry, set off narrow waists with wide metal belts. Minoan woman enjoyed a higher status than many other civilizations. Minoan ships help keep the seas free from pirates John 3:16

  12. The Minoans (cont) John 3:16 Minoan ships dominated the Mediterranean Ships protected coast—no need for walls The destruction or collapse of the Minoan civilization believed by a tidal wave after an earthquake or from attack from Mycenaeans

  13. Aegean Civilizations The Mycenaeans The Mycenaeans, from Indo-European peoples of central Asia, began moving from their homeland around 2000 B.C. When they entered the Balkan Peninsula, the Mycenaeans intermarried with local people, known as the Hellenes, and set up a group of kingdoms. John 3:16

  14. The Mycenaeans (con’t) The palaces in the center of Mycenae served as government offices The Mycenaeans adopted many Minoan cultural elements: metalworking, shipbuilding, and navagation Each kingdom created centered around a hilltop. Stone walls circled the fortress. John 3:16

  15. The Mycenaeans (cont) John 3:16 • Made swords of bronze • Kept good records and collected taxes based on wealth • Wheat • Livestock • Honey

  16. The Mycenaeans and the Dorians By the mid-1400s B.C.,the Mycenaeans had conquered the Minoans and controlled the Aegean area Soon after 1100 B.C., however, the Greek-speaking Dorians conquered Greece from the North Myceneaen walls weakened by civil war Dorians had iron weapons John 3:16

  17. The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians Historians call the next 300 years of Greek history a “dark age” because overseas trade stopped, people lost skills, and poverty increased. Large numbers of Greeks flee the Dorian influence and go to Aegean islands and across the Aegean Sea to Asian Minor and a place called Ionia. John 3:16

  18. The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians John 3:16 By 750 B.C. the Ionians reintroduced culture, crafts and skills to Greece…mostly Mycenaean. New Greek culture called Hellenic flourished from 700s until 336 B.C. Ionians introduce Phoenician alphabet and other cultural elements in Ionia and their former homeland.

  19. The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians John 3:16 The Phoenician alphabet limits Greek reading and writing to just 24 letters and made learning simpler. The Dorian “Dark Ages” went away and a new Greek civilization formed from mostly Mycenaean elements.

  20. Poets and Heroes John 3:16 During “Dark Ages”, bards—singing story tellers—kept Mycenaean traditions alive Now able to write, Greeks began to record bard stories

  21. The Iliad and the Odyssey According to tradition, an eighth-century B.C. blind poet named Homer composed the two most famous Greek epics “Iliad” and the “Odyssey” Set during and after the legendary Trojan War in the mid-1200s B.C. Mycenaeans fought Trojans mid 1200s A.D. John 3:16

  22. The Iliad and the Odyssey John 3:16 Iliad begins with Trojan prince falling in love with Helen, wife of Mycenaean king He takes her with him to Troy Avenging Helen’s kidnapping, Mycenaeans lay siege to Troy for 10 years Unable to capture the city, Mycenaeans resort to trickery, using a wooden horse to gain entry

  23. The Iliad and the Odyssey John 3:16 • According to Illiad • Trojan War lasted 10 years • Troy in present day Turkey • Greeks built large wooden horse • Soldiers hid in belly • Gave to Troy as gift and pretended to sail away • Once inside gates, Greek soldiers leapt out and conquered Troy

  24. The Iliad and the Odyssey John 3:16 The Iliad and the Odyssey are epic poems, not reliable historic accounts of the Trojan War

  25. The Iliad and the Odyssey The Odyssey describes the wonderings of the Mycenaean king, Odysseus, and his return to his faithful wife His 10-year journey resulted in people referring to any long, adventure-filled journey as a odyssey John 3:16

  26. The Illiad and the Odyssey John 3:16 Schools in ancient Greece used Homer’s epics to teach values. His epics talked about values such as courage and honor.

  27. Teaching Greek Values John 3:16 • The Iliad and Odyssey also represented of the things • Love of nature • Husband and wife relationships • Tender feelings • Loyalty between friends • Strive for excellence • Meet life with dignity

  28. A Family of Deities Explained why people behaved like that Why their lives took a certain direction. More than other civilizations, the Greeks humanized their deities The Greeks didn’t fear their gods, they approached their gods with dignity They humanized their gods Their gods took human form Their gods possessed super-human powers Tried to be like them—striving for excellence John 3:16

  29. Gods and Goddesses Greeks took features of both Minoan and Mycenaean gods Each community took a particular god or goddess as its patron and protector Greeks believed 12 most important deities lived on Mount Olympus Believed that each controlled a specific part of the natural world, e.g. Zeus, the chief god ruled the sky, weather and thunderstorms John 3:16

  30. Gods and Goddesses John 3:16 • Apollo, god of light, drove the sun across the sky every day in his chariot • Apollo considered god of prophecy • Brought gifts to oracle at Delphi honoring him • Asked for hidden knowledge to be revealed • Priests and priestesses would interpret Apollo’s answers to questions

  31. Gods and Goddesses John 3:16 • As Hellenic civilization developed, certain religious festivals became part of Greek life—including the Olympic Games • Held in city of Olympia • “For the greater glory of Zeus” • Drama (a celebration of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility).

  32. Gods and Goddesses John 3:16 • Originted the play • Celebrated of Dionysus • Audience around on hillside • Told stories and danced to the flute • Permanent amphitheaters appeared

  33. Chapter 4, Section 2, The Polis Greek Colonies and Trade The Typical Polis Political and Social Change John 3:16

  34. Objectives Know how economic prosperity brought significant political and social changes to the Greek city-states Understand that the Greeks founded colonies throughout the area of the Mediterranean and Black Seas John 3:16

  35. Terms to Know Polis: a city-state; the basic political unit of the Hellenic civilization Citizen: those who take part in government Aristocrat: nobles; members of the upper class Phalanx: rows of soldiers using their shields to form a wall Tyrant: a person seizing power of a city-state and controlling it Oligarchy: where a few wealthy people hold power Democracy: a government by the people where power lies in the hands of the people John 3:16

  36. Places to Locate Athens Sparta John 3:16

  37. The Typical Polis A typical polis included a city and the surrounding villages, fields, and orchards; on the top of the acropolis in the center of the city stood the temple of the local deity, and at the foot of the acropolis citizens gathered to carry out public affairs—the agora. John 3:16

  38. The Typical Polis The citizens of a polis had both rights and responsibilities. The could vote, hold public office, speak for themselves, and own property. They were expected to serve in government and defend the polis in war. Citizens, however, made up only a minority of the residents of the polis; slaves, foreign-born residents, and women had no political or legal rights. Before 500 B.C., men not owning land were excluded The “agora” served as the polis political center John 3:16

  39. Greek Colonies and Trade By 700 B.C. Greek farmers no longer grew enough grain to feed everyone, so each polis sent out groups of people to establish colonies in coastal areas. Each colony kept close ties with its mainland metropolis, supplying grain and exporting the mainland’s excess wine, olive oil, and other cash crops. John 3:16

  40. Greek Colonies and Trade Soon, the Greeks replaced their barter system with a money economy, and expanded overseas trade. Merchants started issuing coins Cities soon over this responsibility The cities of Ionia in Asia Minor assumed leadership in a growing textile industry; pottery made in Ionia was the earliest Greek pottery to be exported. John 3:16

  41. Political and Social Change Economic growth changed Greek political life; where once kings had ruled, landholding aristocrats took power. Aristocrats would supply military forces for king’s ventures Farmers became indebted to landowners and had difficulty repaying loans, often selling themselves into slavery Disputes arose between the aristocrats and farmers, who demanded political reforms. John 3:16

  42. Political and Social Change John 3:16 • As Greek armies came to rely on foot soldiers (generally farmers) more than cavalry (generally aristocrats), aristocrats began to lose influence. • Farmers provide the core of the phalanx—closely arrayed rows of soldiers with solid row of shields • Merchants and artisans began demanding change—wanted polis to advance business interests

  43. Political and Social Change John 3:16 As a result of the unrest, tyrannies arose, in which one man seized power and ruled the polis single-handedly. Most tyrants ruled fairly, but a few gave the term “tyrant” a bad name Tyrants ruled until 500 B.C.

  44. Political and Social Change John 3:16 After the reign of tyrants, most city-states become either oligarchies or democracies The most famous democracy in Greece was Athens, and the most famous oligarchy was Sparta

  45. Chapter 4, Section 3, Rivals Sparta Athens Athenian Democracy John 3:16

  46. Objectives Know the difference between the values, cultures, and achievements represented by Sparta and those represented by Athens John 3:16

  47. Terms to Define Constitution: The plan of government Rhetoric: The art of public speaking John 3:16

  48. People to Know Draco Solon Peisistratus Cleisthenes John 3:16

  49. Places to Locate Peloponnesus Attica John 3:16

  50. Sparta The descendents of the Dorian invaders of the dark age founded Sparta, located in Peloponnesus, a peninsula of southern Greece. Instead of founding overseas colonies, the Spartans invaded neighboring city-states and enslaved the local people. John 3:16