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World History

World History. Chapter Five Section Two. Literature, History, Philosophy. Ideas borrowed from the Greeks Blending of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman – known as Greco-Roman civilization Virgil - Aeneid – epic poem that showed Rome’s past

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World History

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  1. World History Chapter Five Section Two

  2. Literature, History, Philosophy • Ideas borrowed from the Greeks • Blending of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman – known as Greco-Roman civilization • Virgil - Aeneid – epic poem that showed Rome’s past • Linked to Greece – Aeneas escaped from Troy and founded Rome • Written after Augustus took power - unity

  3. Poetry • Satire – make fun of – Roman society • Horace – used satire to make fun of human folly • Juvenal and Martial – more cutting in wit • Martial was so crass in his poems that he changed names so he would not be hurt or killed

  4. Historians • Told of the rise and fall of Roman power • Livy – tried to arouse patriotic feelings – recalled Rome’s heroic past • Horatius and Cincinnatus • Tacitus – disliked Augustus and his successors and felt they ruined Rome

  5. Philosophy • Borrowed much of it from the Greeks • Hellenistic philosophy of Stoicism impressed Marcus Aurelius • Stoics stressed accepting of ones fate and duty • Showed concern for all people

  6. Art and Architecture • Sculptors portrayed realism – showed warts and veins • Sought to show a person character – look on face – smug, arrogant, proud • Some sculptors strived for an idealistic view • Used art to beautify homes • Mosaics – picture made from chips of stone or glass

  7. Architecture • Emphasized grandeur – size, power • Huge temples, palaces and stadiums • Used columns and arches • Invented concrete for building material • Developed a round domed roof • Pantheon – temple that honors the Roman gods and is still in Rome today

  8. Pantheon

  9. Science and Math • Romans were masters of engineering – application of science and math to develop useful structures and machines • Roads, bridges, harbors • Built so well still around today • Aqueducts – bridge like stone structures that carried water

  10. Science • Greeks now citizens in the Empire and most science was left to them to perform • Ptolemy – astronomer-mathematician • Proposed theory that earth was the center of the universe – he was wrong but this was accepted for 1500 years

  11. Civil Law • Civil law developed in Rome – applied to citizens • Law of Nations – applied to non-citizens and citizens alike • When Rome offered citizenship to more people these two law codes merged • Innocent until proven guilty • Accused could face his/her accuser and defend themselves • Guilt had to be established “clearer than daylight” – using evidence • Judges were to interpret the law and be fair • Penalties varied depending on social class and the poor were often treated more harshly

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