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World History

World History. Historical Terms. BC =“Before Christ” before the birth of Jesus Christ the founder of Christianity. BC dates get smaller as time passes- BCE= Another way for BC, means beyond the common era . AD= Anno Domini. AD dates get larger as time passes.

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World History

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  1. World History

  2. Historical Terms BC =“Before Christ” before the birth of Jesus Christ the founder of Christianity. BC dates get smaller as time passes- BCE= Another way for BC, means beyond the common era. AD= Anno Domini. AD dates get larger as time passes. CE=Like AD, it stands for common era. BCE and CE are used to avoid Christian references.
  3. What is History? History= The Study of the Past. Historians=People who study history. Historians want to know who did what and to whom! They are interested in the way people lived, worked, fought and worshipped Use mostly written work (5000 years) like record books, poems, speeches, letters, battle plans,etc.
  4. What are Historical Sources? Primary Source=an account of the event by someone who was there! We get their words from official records, diaries, letters, etc. Secondary source=information gathered by someone not there. We get their words from textbooks and encyclopedias.
  5. How does digging help historians? Archaeology=the study of the past based on materials that people have left behind. Archeologists explore places where people once lived, hunted, or fought, etc. They find clues from evidence recovered. Recoveries can be of great value
  6. Fossils and Artifacts Fossils=a part or imprint of something once alive. Bones and footprints preserved in rock are examples. Artifacts=objects created and used by humans like arrowheads, coins, tools, toys, jewelry and pottery. Both can be very valuable!
  7. Examples of Fossils
  8. Ancient Persian Artifact 900-1200 A.D. Artifact Examples Syrian Pottery 9th century B.C. Iroquois Indian Arrowheads
  9. Other Sources of clues! Legends Stories Luck
  10. A Society
  11. What is a Society? a community of people who share a common culture. They share things like religion, political views, interests, traditions, beliefs, activities, and professions. Community=A group of individuals living together with common interests and goals.
  12. Gathering clues gives historians information about past societies. Culture=A culture is a way of life of a group of people--the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, and are passed on from one generation to the next. Society=a community of people who share a common culture. Social Structure=the way a society is organized. Families are an important part of a culture’s social structure.
  13. What has been found. Actual items that were made and traded. Ex. Centuries ago people used a rock called Obsidian for making weapons. Archeologists have found Obsidian weapons hundreds of miles away from the stone’s sources. This means they sold or traded the rock to others. Obsidian rock Used for tools/weapons
  14. What has been found Ancient Languages. Some languages are difficult to decipher. Did you know the Rosetta Stone was created in Ancient Egypt. It shows the same message in Greek and two types of Egyptian writing. Scholars that could read Greek could read Egyptian because of this. Discovered cave drawings can tell us a great deal about a society.
  15. What was found? Art. Art can tell us what a society did, what they believed in and what technology existed. Did you know that archeologists have found Egyptian tombs full of beautifully crafted furniture, jewelry, toys and other everyday items? Egyptians believed the dead would need these things in the afterlife.
  16. What was found? Architecture. Recovered buildings explain a societies living arrangements, religious beliefs, war protection, and engineering talents. Did you know? Early architects built castles with thick walls to protect the royalty from being attacked, bombed or easily overtaken. Did you know? Ancient Greek temples were built to show the importance of the Greek Gods.
  17. Belief and Values Historians use many sources to interpret the beliefs and values of a society. Example: Chinese Confucius writings tell about the importance of family. The Babylonian Hammurabi’s Code explain his belief in justice. Ancient Roman speeches display those who served in the public were thought highly of. Greek Statues (Art) show the value the Greeks placed on sports and being physically fit.
  18. New Discoveries New findings help historians and archeologists reconsider many aspects of past societies. Example: Historians once believed that the Mayans of Central America were a peaceful people who studied the stars and made maps. Once historians figured out how to read the Mayan language they discovered they were really a warring nation who conquered many neighbors and participated in a religion that included cruel, bloody rituals.
  19. The Roman Empire
  20. The Roman Empire A quick review: Myth: Twins Romulus and Remus Etruscans rule Rome and are overthrown by Omans. (Rom-Oans or Romans) A government is devised called a Republic, a government with elected officials. Roman citizens vote and participate in government. Romans take over Italy, Sicily, Spain, Parts of Africa, and Gaul.
  21. The Roman Empire Building the Roman Empire. Between 700 BC and 100 AD Rome grew from a tiny village to a huge city. As population grew into millions territory grew around the Mediterranean Sea. Mediterranean Sea
  22. The Roman Empire As Rome grew and gained more territory its government also changed. Rome was first ruled: King Republic: a gov’t elected by Rome’s citizens. Emperor: One man and his rules!
  23. First known as Octavian! Rome’s 1st Emperor Augustus(the sacred one). He created many of the powers other emperors would enjoy. He could: Declare war Raise taxes Punish lawbreakers Nominate public officials Lead religious festivals Influence meeting of the Senate, those who ruled Rome. Augustus helped expand the Roman Empire
  24. The Roman Empire Why was the Roman Empire so successful? Augustus cared about well-being of Romans. Augustus wanted justice (fairness) for all Roman citizens. Laws were created, written down and displayed publically. Everyone knew rules so officials had to treat everyone fairly. (no corruption) Conquered people wanted same fair treatment and became loyal to Rome. Every Roman deserves food, fun and fairness
  25. The Roman Empire Who were Roman citizens and how were they protected under Roman Law? Roman citizens = adult males, freed slaves, some males from conquered nations. Not women or slaves. Citizen rights: Vote Hold Public office Legal contracts Own Property Marriage
  26. The Roman Empire Duties of Roman Citizens. Participate in Roman government by voting and holding public office. Pay taxes All adult males must serve in the army! Citizens were Proud to be Roman and were loyal to the emperor.
  27. The Roman Empire Roman Accomplishments Roman Engineers Built durable roads and bridges to travel on and improved trade. Forts for protection Aqueducts: human made channels that carried water from far away mountains to Rome and other cities. So successful other people copied and still use today!!!(2000 years later) Think: AQUACK-DUCK
  28. The Roman Empire Architecture: =the art of designing buildings. Roman architects built large and strong buildings and beautiful structures. Borrowed Greek ideas but improved strength and size. Romans loved the Greek Columns
  29. FYI-The Roman Empire A special building: The Coliseum 50,000 Romans could gather for days and watch gladiators games and other public spectacles. Re-enactments of famous battles, executions, animal hunts and classical mythology.
  30. The Roman Empire Roman Artists Borrowed from Greeks Realistic attributes (so real statues seemed to come to life) Portraits had personality. So much that technique is still studied.
  31. The Roman Empire Roman Philosophy Philosophers, or thinkers, wanted Romans to live virtuous lives. Stoics (philosophers) wanted people to not focus on material wealth but civic duty!
  32. The Roman Empire Religion Christianity Appeared early AD, based on the messiah, Jesus. Became stronger, and spread. Roman officials tried to stop religion, killing many, but efforts didn’t work. 300 AD Roman Emperor became Christian. Christianity became official religion of Roman Empire.
  33. The Roman Empire Christian Church As church grew it’s influence over Roman government grew. A Pope, the bishop of Rome, helped unify Rome as a single Christian Society. Other religions not welcome! Today Vatican City in Rome.
  34. Diocletian Took control late 200 AD. Thought Empire was too big to rule so divided in 2. He ruled Eastern half assigned another for Western half.
  35. Constantine Emperor after Diocletian Wanted to re-unify 2 halves again Moved capital to Istanbul (Turkey) City named Constantinople “City of Constantine.” Amazing city! Power of Rome out of Italy but still called Roman Empire
  36. Barbarians Invade Again… Germans from the North began to raid the Roman Empire. Huns from Central Asia began their attack on Europe and Rome. Goths were victims of Huns and moved to Rome Romans fought to keep Goths out. Romans were successful against Goths in East, West not so lucky. 408 AD Roman wealth gone in 410 Rome considered destroyed.
  37. Other Invasions successful Gothic victory example to others. 400 A.D.’s Vandals invaded Spain then Roman territory in N. Africa. Angles, Saxons, Jutes invade Britain. Franks invade Gaul. 480 Frankish King Clovis built a huge Kingdom in Gaul. Clovis was a Christian.
  38. Attila the Hun! Brilliant and terrifying military leader. Raided Roman land in East. Including Constantinople, Greece, Gaul, and ports of Italy. Did not invade Rome because of rampant disease killing thousands!
  39. List End of Roman Empire Why did Rome fall to Barbarians? Attacks too much to withstand. Emperors too weak and not supported by…
  40. The Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) Constantinople or “City of Constantine” Great Roman advances influenced city. In a location of protection between Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Trade easy and profitable with waterways. Grew in wealth and power. Christianity main religion. Religious leaders: East Rome=Emperor head of church West Rome=Pope head of church.
  41. The Byzantine Empire Emperor Justinian 527-565 AD Emperor of Constantinople whose greatest desire was to re-unite Rome. Sent powerful army to re-take Rome. His army conquered Italy and much of Mediterranean.
  42. The Byzantine Empire Justinian’s rule Valued Roman law. Had all laws updated with Christian laws. Organized all laws into a legal system called Justinian’s Code. Wanted fairness for all! Wanted government corruption to end-no paying for leadership roles. Fair elections with good people. Made many enemies.
  43. The Byzantine Empire Justinian Rule Last real ruler of Roman Empire Enemies made him want to flee but wife, Theodora, stops him. Theodora helped husband rule. 565 Justinian death: Decline began and territory gained lost. 1453 Ottoman Turks overtook Constantinople. 1000 years of Eastern Roman Empire came to final end!
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