Politics during the Age of Jackson: 1824-1840. Chapter 11. From Era of Good Feelings to Jackson. “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 4 -way race for President, all Republicans Results: 1-Jackson – most popular votes and electoral votes 2-John Quincy Adams (Sec. of State) 3-William Crawford
From Era of Good Feelings to Jackson “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 4-way race for President, all Republicans Results: 1-Jackson – most popular votes and electoral votes 2-John Quincy Adams (Sec. of State) 3-William Crawford 4-Henry Clay (Former War Hawk, Speaker of the House) No majority in the electoral vote—top 3 candidates went to the House of Representatives Clay supported Adams, Adams won, Jackson lost Adams made Clay his Secretary of State—bad feelings among Jackson supporters Adams Presidency—nationalist couldn’t get much done
Election of 1828 Republicans split into two rival factions (re-emergence of the two party system) National Republicans—Adams and Clay Republican party of the Era of Good Feelings and Madison and Monroe after the War of 1812 Democratic Republicans—Jackson Republican party of Jefferson and Madison before the War of 1812 First election with widespread appeal to popular vote, electoral votes in many states tied to popular vote for the first time Jackson won the South and the West, Adams won New England and part of the Northeast Jackson won 178 to 83
“Jacksonian Democracy” Around the time and during the time of Jackson’s presidency the role of the common people in government increased Electoral vote tied to popular vote—not state legislatures Universal white male suffrage—all adult white males could vote regardless of income Candidates chosen by political convention not by party leaders End of established religions in New England Effects of this increase in democracy?
George Caleb Bingham: County Election 1852
All Creation Going to the White House: 1829
Canvassing For a Vote 1852
Jackson Campaign Poster 1828
Anti-Jackson Cartoon ca. 1828
Anti-Jackson Newspaper Article ca.1828 General Jackson’s mother was a Common Prostitute, brought to this country by the British soldiers! She afterwards married a MULATTO man with whom she had several children, of which GENERAL JACKSON is one.
Major Issues of Jackson’s Presidency Major Issues Spoils System Tariffs and nullification Bank Indian Removal Spoils System Unlike previous administrations Jackson fired government workers appointed/hired by his predecessors—”To the victor (of the election) go the spoils (the government jobs).” New appointees loyal to Jackson and his party How could this also be viewed as democratic? Drawbacks of this system?
Tariffs and Nullification Protective Tariffs divided the nation—one of the major sources of sectional conflict Tariffs protected US industry from foreign competition BUT increased the overall cost of goods in the US Tariffs also made it more difficult to export goods (agricultural products) to foreign countries North liked tariffs, South and West disliked them (South especially) 1828 an especially high tariff was passed—tariff of abominations South Carolina threatened to nullify the law Refuse to enforce it (nullify it) inside its borders What else besides tariffs were on their minds in the South? SC threatened to secede (leave the Union) if the federal govt tried to collect the tariff by force Jackson threatened to send soldiers Civil War!!?? Compromise tariff of 1833, Henry Clay avoided showdown
National Bank 2nd Bank of the United States (B.U.S.) chartered in 1816 for 20 years—charter set to expire in 1836 Jackson hated banks, hated the National Bank, why? Jeffersonian Republicanism—unconstitutional Unfairly benefitted the wealthy/east coast elites People had little control over the bank (government only controlled 1/5th of the board of directors) Jackson hated banks in general—involved in some failed bank schemes out west Foreigners (mostly British) held a lot of Bank stock Pros of the BUS Regulated the money supply—paper money backed up by gold, kept other banks in line by making loans to them Lent money to the Federal Govt. Helped stimulate economic activity by making money available to loan, but not too much money which would lead to boom and bust
Bank Re-Charter Debate Clay forced a re-charter bill through in 1832, why? Passed both houses of Congress but Jackson vetoed it Significance: veto=undemocratic element, in the past veto was only used by the President if he thought something was unconstitutional, Jackson just disagreed with the bank, a lot more power for the President Bank became the central issue of the 1832 election Clay (National Republican) vs Jackson (Democratis-Republican)—Jackson won in a landslide Bank and its director (Nicholas Biddle) began to tighten up credit, caused an economic recession to show people how much they needed the Bank Jackson decided to withdrawal all US deposits from the Bank immediately (this would effectively kill the Bank) Treasury secretary refused—Jackson fired him replaced him with someone who would remove the deposits (Roger B. Taney)
Aftermath of the Bank Debate State banks and shady private banks “Wildcat Banks” were flooded by money that used to be in the National Bank No more National Bank to keep smaller banks in line Result: smaller banks loaned out lots of money, issued lots of paper currency, economy expanded too quickly, paper money lost its value Financial Panic and Crash—wave of bank failures 1837
Indian Removal Due to patterns of white settlement about 125,000 Indians were trapped east of the Mississippi mostly in the South East 5 “Civilized” Tribes Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Cherokees Had largely embraced European culture in an attempt to retain control of their land European clothing, housing, farming, slave-owning, alphabet, law codes, constitution Late 1820’s southeastern states began to intrude on Indian lands, Cherokees sued in court, case went to the Supreme Court Worcester v. Georgia 1834 court found for the Cherokees Jackson’s response: “John Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it” Indian Removal Act of 1830—provided land and money to relocate Indians some 100,000 relocated including 17,000 Cherokees 4,000 Cherokees died on the journey west—Trail of Tears
Opposition to Jackson: Beginning of the Whigs Mid-1830s political landscape still very unsettled—no one really knew what was going on Democratic Republicans—Jackson National Republicans—Clay, Webster, Calhoun Anti-Masonic Party—popular in New York/New England Resented the Masons (Jackson) Lower/middle class—holier than thou attitude wanted to use the government to solve social problems (including the Masons) New Parties mid-1830s: The 2nd Two Party System Democratic Republicans=Democrats National Republicans + Anti-Masons + Democrats who hate Jackson = Whig party 1834 or so
The 2nd Two Party System: The Whigs What’s in a name? Opposed Jackson Generally upper class, but extended across all social classes and all sections of the country (mostly New England and the South) Tended to be native born, British descended, Protestant, Americans Favored a broader interpretation of the Constitution A 3rd National Bank Internal Improvements High tariffs (American System) Use the government to solve social problems Drinking, (slavery), public education, mental asylums etc Didn’t want to focus on westward expansion, wanted to focus on improving and settling the land the US already had
The 2nd Two Party System: The Democrats What’s in a name? Party of the people Appealed to the poor and the middle class Also immigrants, Catholics Popular in the South, but also out West, and to the poor in big eastern cities Favored a more limited role for the Federal government Just wanted the government to leave them alone Government involvement cost money Didn’t want the government dictating morality In favor of expanding west, more land for the poor
Election of 1836: Democrats vs. Whigs Democrat=Martin Van Buren Jackson’s VP Little Magician, Old Kinderhook, O.K. Whigs—couldn’t get organized enough to nominate one candidate, plan was to divide the electoral vote and win in the House of Rep. Webster—New England White—South Harrison—West Van Buren won easily Economic Depression (caused by Jackson’s banking errors) lasted throughout Van Buren’s administration Independent Treasury—government stopped putting money in state banks, held on to its own money
Election of 1840 Van Buren hurt by the economy Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison Harrison=the Whig version of Jackson, a war hero, Indian fighter, frontiersman, born in a log cabin Log Cabin and Hard Cider campaign Short on issues, long on slogans and hoopla Tippecanoe, , , , , , , and Tyler too Harrison elected in 1840 Sworn in—March of 1841, got sick Died—April 1841 John Tyler (Tyler too!) became President
Looking Back: Effects of the Jacksonian Era on Politics 2 new political parties: Democrats and Whigs—two party system would last until present day Political party conventions for nominating candidates Increase in democracy and the role of the common man Universal white male suffrage, electoral vote tied to popular vote Idea that democracy was not a bad thing, being a man of the people no longer a negative, parties had to appeal to the masses (for better or worse) More power for the office of President Tariff controversy Bank debate Indian removal