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Brief History of Sport Culture Sociology of Sport Canadian Sport Heroes History? Social, political, economic and ideological factors have influenced sport Issues: gender involvement, physical education, competition, obstacles to become recognized Distinctive Periods Pre 1840 1840-1918

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brief history of sport culture

Brief History of Sport Culture

Sociology of Sport

Canadian Sport Heroes

history
History?
  • Social, political, economic and ideological factors have influenced sport
  • Issues: gender involvement, physical education, competition, obstacles to become recognized
  • Distinctive Periods
    • Pre 1840
    • 1840-1918
    • 1918-1961
    • 1961-present
slide4
1789- sport club development
  • 1840 – starting date of sport in central Canada
  • Significant developments and political influences
    • WWI, WWII
    • Passage of Acts and Bills
      • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act 1961
      • Beginning of the modern era of sport in Canada
pre 1840
Pre 1840…..
  • Native Indian, Inuit and Voyageurs
  • Utilitarian approach
  • Organized sport – early 19th century
  • British troops
    • Influence and important role on the early development of sport in Canada
    • Funds for trophies and awards
    • Establish homeland sports
      • Cricket, rowing, track and field, horse racing and fox hunting
pre 1840 s
Pre 1840’s
  • 1840 – Tandem clubs
    • Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, Quebec
  • Membership (military officers)
  • Foundation of organized sport development
  • Upper middle class, large urban areas
    • Social event vs. procedural competition
    • Predominantly WASPS
  • Montreal Curling Club (1807)
socially elite busy socializing
Socially Elite busy socializing…
  • Working class sport interests
    • Taverns, saloons, drinking shanties
    • Billiards, wrestling, prize fights etc…
    • Bull baiting, dog fights, cockfighting
  • Excluded competitors
    • Working class tradesman
    • Native, African American, Irish and even Scot
  • Little inter-city competition
    • Travel
    • Only wealthy could afford to travel
      • Restricted to socially elite
1840 1918
1840-1918
  • Canada dependant on fur trade
  • Upper and Lower Canada
  • Largest cities Montreal, Quebec, Toronto and Hamilton
  • 3.5 million population, 20% urban
  • Urbanization from 1867-1901-1921
  • Trades became important
    • farming, fishing and timber
1840 1918 advancements
1840-1918 Advancements…
  • Technological development
    • Growth or urbanization
    • Industrialization
    • Changes in sport (1840-1918)
  • Transportation
    • Cheaper and special excursion rates
    • Sports interaction
    • CPR (1885)
  • Communication
    • Morse code 1842
    • Media and telegraph system – Bell 1874
    • Newspaper (early 19th century)
popular sports
Popular sports
  • Lacrosse
  • hockey
  • Cricket
  • Baseball (1870’s)
  • Dr. W.G. Beers – lacrosse rules
  • JGA Creighton – hockey rules
  • Communication advances – reporting of sports results
  • Emergency of national celebrities
    • Ned Hanlan (sculler)
    • Tommy Burns (heavyweight boxer)
montreal
Montreal
  • Cradle or organized sport
  • Headquarters for British imperial forces
  • The Hunt Club (1829)
  • The Cricket Club (1929)
  • Tandem Club (1837)
  • Racquet Club (1839)
  • Montreal Olympic Club (1842)
  • Montreal Snow Shoe Club (1843)
  • Montreal Lacrosse Club (1856)
  • Montreal Amateur Athletic Association (MAAA)
    • MSSC, MLC and MBC (1881)
    • 10 Governing bodies in various sports
amateur or pro
Amateur or Pro?
  • Class distinction
    • One based on earning money
  • Canadian Amateur Athletic Association (1884)
  • “athletic war” 1906
  • CAAU formerly the CAAA
    • Amateur athletes not allowed to compete with or against professionals
    • “shamateurism”
  • AAF of C 1907 (Amateur Athletic Federation)
slide13
CAAU
  • 1909
    • 900 clubs
    • 60000 additional members
    • Rejoining of AAF of C to the CAAU to become the Amateur Athletic Union of Canada (AAU of C)
    • Free competition amoung all competitors skill
  • 1914
    • 1300 clubs
    • 100,000 registered athletes
war of 1914 the great war
War of 1914 – The Great War
  • Sports leagues ceased operations
  • Only attended games (few and far between) tickets were returned to charity
  • Sports thrived in the military
    • Mixing of amateurs and professionals as long as uniformed
    • Strengthened sport development
      • Increased female participation
      • Increased club memberships
      • Improved conditions for sport
women in sport
Women in Sport
  • Women involvement minimal
  • Leisure activities pursued by males:
    • Fishing, hunting, horse racing, canoeing, snowshoeing, lacrosse and cricket
  • Women were spectators and social participants
  • Medical opinion of sport and harm
  • Restrictive clothing
women in sport16
Women in Sport
  • 1850 Amelia Bloomer
    • “bloomers”
    • Freedom of movement without loss of dignity
    • Horseback riding, snowshoeing and safety bicycle
  • Late 1800’s
    • Tennis, curling, golf, basketball, baseball and even hockey added
  • Still opposed to women in vigorous activity
    • Physical and emotional stresses of sport
    • Policies and procedures that limited demands
    • Set standards of competition
  • Women sport leaders and academics
women in sport17
Women in Sport
  • After WWI women's participation in sport increased
  • 1920-30s – Golden Age for sport
  • Shorts and t-shirts
  • School involvement
  • More aggressive roles
  • Women’s Amateur Athletic Federation (1926)
  • Emergency of feminism (60’s-70s) more challenging boundaries of “what was acceptable”
women in sport18
Women in Sport
  • “matchless six” – female track team
  • Edmonton Grads – basketball domination
  • Percy Page
  • Barbara Ann Scott(1948)
  • Marilyn Bell (1954)
aboriginals in sport
Aboriginals in Sport
  • Limited participation prior to 1918
  • “professionals” in lacrosse and snowshoeing
  • Special categories and ranks
  • Entertainment for white spectators
  • Tom Longboat (1908) distance runner subject to racial discrimination
  • Does this exist today?
1918 1961
1918-1961
  • Roaring 20’s, Depression and WWII and Cold War (early stages)
  • Urbanization (1921 – 50% urban dwellers)
  • Technological and communication influence and development
    • Proliferation or professional sport
  • International federations (1950’s)
  • Professional sport gaining prestige while amateur sport difficulties
1918 196121
1918-1961
  • NHL
  • American sport Heroes
    • Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Red Grange, Bobby Jones
  • Hockey Night in Canada (Foster Hewitt)
  • Extended boundaries of sport coverage
  • 1950s – television for sports enthusiasts
  • 1952 – first Canadian televised hockey
1918 196122
1918-1961
  • Sporting Events
    • Grey Cup
    • World Series
    • Davis Cup Tennis
  • Post 1961 – televisions greatest influence
  • Increase in automobiles
  • National and international championship games
canadian athletes involvement
Canadian Athletes Involvement
  • Canada entered all summer Olympics since 1904
  • Winter Olympics since 1924
  • Pan American Games since 1955
  • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act (1961)
    • Bill C-131
    • Government involvement in sport and fitness
strathcona trust fund
Strathcona Trust Fund
  • Early 1900’s government promoted military through this fund
  • Physical training projects to maintain health
  • Funds helped to implement programs
    • National Fitness Act (1943)
    • Provincial-Recreation Program
  • 1958 – council brief that focused on sport and fitness issues
slide25
CMA and CAHPER combined forces to lobby government
  • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act
    • Access to sport and fitness for all Canadians
1961 2002 present
1961-2002-present
  • Advancements in technology, society and communications
  • Cold war ended, terrorism began…
  • CBC and other media
  • Hosting of Olympic games (1976 and 1988)
  • Stronger interest in American leagues
    • NFL, NBA, NHL
    • ‘cross border shifting’
promotion of fitness and sport
Promotion of Fitness and Sport
  • Fitness Act of 1961
  • Mass sport and physical fitness programs funding (early 60s)
  • 1969 Pierre Trudeau campaign speech
    • Linking sport with culture and promoting national unity
    • National unity symbol
  • Proposed Sports Policy for Canadians
promotion of fitness and sport28
Promotion of Fitness and Sport
  • National Sport and Recreation Center
  • Hockey Canada
  • Sports Participation Canada
  • Coaching Association of Canada
  • Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport