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Brief History of Sport Culture PowerPoint Presentation
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Brief History of Sport Culture

Brief History of Sport Culture

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Brief History of Sport Culture

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  1. Brief History of Sport Culture Sociology of Sport Canadian Sport Heroes

  2. History? • Social, political, economic and ideological factors have influenced sport • Issues: gender involvement, physical education, competition, obstacles to become recognized • Distinctive Periods • Pre 1840 • 1840-1918 • 1918-1961 • 1961-present

  3. 1789- sport club development • 1840 – starting date of sport in central Canada • Significant developments and political influences • WWI, WWII • Passage of Acts and Bills • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act 1961 • Beginning of the modern era of sport in Canada

  4. Pre 1840….. • Native Indian, Inuit and Voyageurs • Utilitarian approach • Organized sport – early 19th century • British troops • Influence and important role on the early development of sport in Canada • Funds for trophies and awards • Establish homeland sports • Cricket, rowing, track and field, horse racing and fox hunting

  5. Pre 1840’s • 1840 – Tandem clubs • Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, Quebec • Membership (military officers) • Foundation of organized sport development • Upper middle class, large urban areas • Social event vs. procedural competition • Predominantly WASPS • Montreal Curling Club (1807)

  6. Socially Elite busy socializing… • Working class sport interests • Taverns, saloons, drinking shanties • Billiards, wrestling, prize fights etc… • Bull baiting, dog fights, cockfighting • Excluded competitors • Working class tradesman • Native, African American, Irish and even Scot • Little inter-city competition • Travel • Only wealthy could afford to travel • Restricted to socially elite

  7. 1840-1918 • Canada dependant on fur trade • Upper and Lower Canada • Largest cities Montreal, Quebec, Toronto and Hamilton • 3.5 million population, 20% urban • Urbanization from 1867-1901-1921 • Trades became important • farming, fishing and timber

  8. 1840-1918 Advancements… • Technological development • Growth or urbanization • Industrialization • Changes in sport (1840-1918) • Transportation • Cheaper and special excursion rates • Sports interaction • CPR (1885) • Communication • Morse code 1842 • Media and telegraph system – Bell 1874 • Newspaper (early 19th century)

  9. Popular sports • Lacrosse • hockey • Cricket • Baseball (1870’s) • Dr. W.G. Beers – lacrosse rules • JGA Creighton – hockey rules • Communication advances – reporting of sports results • Emergency of national celebrities • Ned Hanlan (sculler) • Tommy Burns (heavyweight boxer)

  10. Montreal • Cradle or organized sport • Headquarters for British imperial forces • The Hunt Club (1829) • The Cricket Club (1929) • Tandem Club (1837) • Racquet Club (1839) • Montreal Olympic Club (1842) • Montreal Snow Shoe Club (1843) • Montreal Lacrosse Club (1856) • Montreal Amateur Athletic Association (MAAA) • MSSC, MLC and MBC (1881) • 10 Governing bodies in various sports

  11. Amateur or Pro? • Class distinction • One based on earning money • Canadian Amateur Athletic Association (1884) • “athletic war” 1906 • CAAU formerly the CAAA • Amateur athletes not allowed to compete with or against professionals • “shamateurism” • AAF of C 1907 (Amateur Athletic Federation)

  12. CAAU • 1909 • 900 clubs • 60000 additional members • Rejoining of AAF of C to the CAAU to become the Amateur Athletic Union of Canada (AAU of C) • Free competition amoung all competitors skill • 1914 • 1300 clubs • 100,000 registered athletes

  13. War of 1914 – The Great War • Sports leagues ceased operations • Only attended games (few and far between) tickets were returned to charity • Sports thrived in the military • Mixing of amateurs and professionals as long as uniformed • Strengthened sport development • Increased female participation • Increased club memberships • Improved conditions for sport

  14. Women in Sport • Women involvement minimal • Leisure activities pursued by males: • Fishing, hunting, horse racing, canoeing, snowshoeing, lacrosse and cricket • Women were spectators and social participants • Medical opinion of sport and harm • Restrictive clothing

  15. Women in Sport • 1850 Amelia Bloomer • “bloomers” • Freedom of movement without loss of dignity • Horseback riding, snowshoeing and safety bicycle • Late 1800’s • Tennis, curling, golf, basketball, baseball and even hockey added • Still opposed to women in vigorous activity • Physical and emotional stresses of sport • Policies and procedures that limited demands • Set standards of competition • Women sport leaders and academics

  16. Women in Sport • After WWI women's participation in sport increased • 1920-30s – Golden Age for sport • Shorts and t-shirts • School involvement • More aggressive roles • Women’s Amateur Athletic Federation (1926) • Emergency of feminism (60’s-70s) more challenging boundaries of “what was acceptable”

  17. Women in Sport • “matchless six” – female track team • Edmonton Grads – basketball domination • Percy Page • Barbara Ann Scott(1948) • Marilyn Bell (1954)

  18. Aboriginals in Sport • Limited participation prior to 1918 • “professionals” in lacrosse and snowshoeing • Special categories and ranks • Entertainment for white spectators • Tom Longboat (1908) distance runner subject to racial discrimination • Does this exist today?

  19. 1918-1961 • Roaring 20’s, Depression and WWII and Cold War (early stages) • Urbanization (1921 – 50% urban dwellers) • Technological and communication influence and development • Proliferation or professional sport • International federations (1950’s) • Professional sport gaining prestige while amateur sport difficulties

  20. 1918-1961 • NHL • American sport Heroes • Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Red Grange, Bobby Jones • Hockey Night in Canada (Foster Hewitt) • Extended boundaries of sport coverage • 1950s – television for sports enthusiasts • 1952 – first Canadian televised hockey

  21. 1918-1961 • Sporting Events • Grey Cup • World Series • Davis Cup Tennis • Post 1961 – televisions greatest influence • Increase in automobiles • National and international championship games

  22. Canadian Athletes Involvement • Canada entered all summer Olympics since 1904 • Winter Olympics since 1924 • Pan American Games since 1955 • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act (1961) • Bill C-131 • Government involvement in sport and fitness

  23. Strathcona Trust Fund • Early 1900’s government promoted military through this fund • Physical training projects to maintain health • Funds helped to implement programs • National Fitness Act (1943) • Provincial-Recreation Program • 1958 – council brief that focused on sport and fitness issues

  24. CMA and CAHPER combined forces to lobby government • Fitness and Amateur Sport Act • Access to sport and fitness for all Canadians

  25. 1961-2002-present • Advancements in technology, society and communications • Cold war ended, terrorism began… • CBC and other media • Hosting of Olympic games (1976 and 1988) • Stronger interest in American leagues • NFL, NBA, NHL • ‘cross border shifting’

  26. Promotion of Fitness and Sport • Fitness Act of 1961 • Mass sport and physical fitness programs funding (early 60s) • 1969 Pierre Trudeau campaign speech • Linking sport with culture and promoting national unity • National unity symbol • Proposed Sports Policy for Canadians

  27. Promotion of Fitness and Sport • National Sport and Recreation Center • Hockey Canada • Sports Participation Canada • Coaching Association of Canada • Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport