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Chapter 10

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  1. Chapter 10 Norton Media Library Chapter 10 Democracy in America, 1815–1840 Eric Foner

  2. I. Andrew Jackson

  3. II. The Triumph of Democracy • Property and Democracy • Property requirements for voting were eliminated by states • The Dorr War • Rhode Island was an exception • Wage earners organized the People’s Convention in 1841 • Elected Thomas Dorr

  4. II. The Triumph of Democracy (con’t) • Democracy in America • By 1840, more than 90 percent of adult white men were eligible to vote • Democratic political institutions came to define the nation’s sense of its own identity • Tocqueville identified democracy as an essential attribute of American freedom • The term “citizen” in America had become synonymous with the right to vote • As with the market revolution, women and blacks were barred from full democracy • They were denied on the basis of natural incapacity

  5. II. The Triumph of Democracy (con’t) • Women and the Public Sphere • Rise of the mass circulation “penny press” • The growth of the reading public opened the door for the rise of a new generation of women writers • A Racial Democracy • Despite increased democracy in America, blacks were seen as a group apart • Blacks were often portrayed as stereotypes • Blacks were not allowed to vote in most states • In effect, race had replaced class as the boundary that separated those American men who were entitled to enjoy political freedom from those who were not

  6. III. Nationalism and Its Discontents • The American System • A new manufacturing sector emerged from the War of 1812 and many believed that it was necessary complement to the agricultural sector for national growth • In 1815 President James Madison put forward a blueprint for government-promoted economic development that came to be known as the American System • new national bank • tariffs • federal financing for better roads and canals

  7. III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) • President Madison came to believe that a constitutional amendment was necessary for the government to build roads and canals • Banks and Money • The Second Bank of the United States was a profit-making corporation that served the government • Local banks promoted economic growth • Local banks printed money • Value of paper currency fluctuated wildly • Bank of the United States was supposed to prevent the over-issuance of money

  8. III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) • The Panic of 1819 • The Bank of the United States participated in a speculative fever that swept the country after the War of 1812 ended • Early in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels, the economic bubble burst • The Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony of the previous years • Americans continued to distrust banks • The Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the United States was constitutional • Maryland could not tax the bank

  9. III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) • The Missouri Controversy • James Monroe’s two terms as president were characterized by the absence of two-party competition • The absence of political party disputes was replaced by sectional disputes • Missouri petitioned for statehood in 1819 • Debate arose over slavery • Missouri Compromise was adopted by Congress in 1820 • Henry Clay engineered a second Missouri Compromise

  10. III. Nationalism and Its Discontents (con’t) • Northern Republicans did not want slavery to expand for political reasons • The Missouri debate highlighted that the westward expansion of slavery was a passionate topic and would prove to be a fatal issue

  11. IV. Nation, Section, and Party • The Monroe Doctrine • Between 1810 and 1822, Spain’s Latin American colonies rose in rebellion and established a series of independent nations • In 1822, the Monroe administration became the first government to extend diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics

  12. IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) • Fearing that Spain would try to regain its colonies, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine • No more European colonization of the New World • The United States would abstain from European affairs • No re-colonization

  13. IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) • The Election of 1824 • Andrew Jackson was the only candidate in the 1824 election to have national appeal • None of the four candidates received a majority of the electoral votes • Fell to the House of Representatives • Henry Clay supported John Quincy Adams • Clay’s “corrupt bargain” gave Adams the White House • Democratic party • Whig party

  14. IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) • The Nationalism of John Quincy Adams • John Quincy Adams enjoyed one of the most distinguished pre-presidential careers of any American president • Adams had a clear vision of national greatness • Supported the American system • Wished to enhance American influence in the Western Hemisphere

  15. IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) • Adams held a view of federal power far more expansive than most of his contemporaries • Stated that “liberty is power” • His plans alarmed many and his vision would not be fulfilled until the twentieth century • Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party • Adams’s program handed his political rivals a powerful weapon • individual liberty • states rights • limited government

  16. IV. Nation, Section, and Party (con’t) • Martin Van Buren viewed political party competition as a necessary and positive influence to achieve national unity • The Election of 1828 • By 1828, Van Buren had established the political apparatus of the Democratic party • Andrew Jackson campaigned against John Quincy Adams in 1828 • Victory went to Jackson and American politics had been transformed

  17. V. The Age of Jackson • The Party System • Politics had become a spectacle • Party machines emerged • “spoils system” • National conventions chose candidates • Democrats and Whigs • Democrats and Whigs approached issues that emerged from the market revolution differently • Democrats favored nongovernment intervention in the economy • Whigs supported government promotion of the economy

  18. V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) • Public and Private Freedom • The party battles of the Jacksonian era reflected the clash between “public” and “private” definitions of American freedom and their relationship to governmental power • Democrats supported a weak federal government, championing individual and states’ rights • Reduced expenditures • Reduced tariffs • Abolished the national bank

  19. V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) • Democrats opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on society • Whigs believed that a strong federal government was necessary to promote liberty • Whigs argued that the role of government was to promote the welfare of the people • The Nullification Crisis • Jackson’s first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state law • Tariff of 1828

  20. V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) • South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal government • John C. Calhoun emerged as the leading theorist of nullification • Exposition and protest • States created the Constitution • Daniel Webster argued that the people, not the states, created the Constitution • Calhoun and Jackson disagreed about the meaning of liberty and union and nullification • Calhoun left the Democratic party for the Whigs

  21. V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) • Indian Removal • The expansion of cotton and slavery forced the relocation of Indians • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Five Civilized Tribes • The law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that “civilized” Indians could be assimilated into the American population • The Cherokees went to court to protect their rights • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia • Worcester v. Georgia

  22. V. The Age of Jackson (con’t) • John Ross led Cherokee resistance • Trail of Tears • The Seminoles fought a war against removal • William Apess appealed for harmony between white Americans and Indians

  23. VI. The Bank War and After • Biddle’s Bank • The Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution • Heading the Bank was Nicholas Biddle of Pennsylvania • Jackson distrusted the bank • Biddle’s bank threatened Jackson’s reelection • Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Bank’s charter

  24. VI. The Bank War and After (con’t) • The Pet Banks and the Economy • Both “soft money” advocates and “hard money” advocates supported Jackson’s veto • Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the National Bank and their deposit in local banks • “pet banks” • Roger Taney • Prices rose dramatically but “real wages” declined

  25. VI. The Bank War and After (con’t) • The Panic of 1837 • By 1836 gold or silver was required by the American government and the Bank of England for payments • With cotton exports declining, the United States suffered a panic in 1837 and a depression until 1843 • Martin Van Buren approved the Independent Treasury to deal with the crisis • The Independent Treasury split the Democratic party • Calhoun went back to the Democrats

  26. VI. The Bank War and After (con’t) • The Election of 1840 • The Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison in 1840 • Harrison was promoted as the “log cabin” candidate • Running mate was John Tyler • Selling candidates in campaigns was as important as the platform for which they stood • His Accidency • Harrison died a month after taking office • Tyler vetoed measures to enact the American System

  27. The Missouri Compromise, 1820 • pg. 357 The Missouri Compromise, 1820

  28. The Presidential Election of 1824 • pg. 360 The Presidential Election of 1824

  29. The Presidential Election of 1828 The Presidential Election of 1828 • pg. 363

  30. Indian Removals, 1830–1840 • pg. 372 Indian Removals, 1830–1840

  31. The Presidential Election of 1840 The Presidential Election of 1840 • pg. 377

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  44. http://www.wwnorton.com/foner/ Go to website

  45. End chap. 10 This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 10 Give Me Liberty! An American History by Eric Foner W. W. Norton & CompanyIndependent and Employee-Owned