Two Definitions of Politics • 1) Organizations as Government • 2) Organizations as Political Activity
Organizations as Govt. • 1) Politics as Government: • Autocracy • Bureaucracy • Technocracy • Codetermination • Representative Democracy • Direct Democracy
Politics as Government • 1) Historically, what has led to the belief that U.S. organizations should not be ruled by direct democacy or represent. Democracy or co-determination.
Organizations as Political Activity • 1) Interests • 2) Conflict • 3) Power
Interest • Task • Career • Extra-mural
Conflict • Conflict will ALWAYS exist. • Conflict can be personal, organizational, status-related. • Conflict is interpreted by the status of the observer • Types of conflict will correspond to a society’s values, goals and norms.
Power • Power is used to resolve conflict. • Types of Power ---
Formal authority Control of Scarce resources Use of Org. Rules, structure and reg. Control of Decision processes Control of knowledge and information Control of Boundaries Ability to cope with uncertainty Control of Technology Interpersonal alliances and networks Control of Counter-orgs. Symbolism and management of meaning Gender/Race/Sexuality/ Ability/Age Structural factors Power one already has. Types of Power
Strengths and Weaknesses • Recognizes that conflict exists. • Perhaps makes us see conflict in places it does not truly exist….