Chapter 10: Democratic Politics, Religious Revival and Reform "County Election" by George Caleb Bingham
I. The rise of democratic politics • Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams • All ran as Republicans in 1824 • Pressures on Democrats, Federalists and Republicans • South / North • South increasing cotton and agriculture • North industrialization and Mills
3. Division a. Democrats 1. Suspicion of strong Federal government 2. Preference for state’s rights b. Republicans 1. Favored government support of the economic development projects 2. Former federalists tended to become Whigs 3. Whigs Took their party name for the party in Parliament during the revolution which had supported American independence
B – Democratization 1. Reduced voting requirements a. The “poll tax” replaced landownership in the west b. Eastern states liberalized also c. written ballots became common as opposed to “stand up” voice voting (sometimes referred to as “viva voce” voting) d. More offices became elected fewer were appointed e. Electors were elected by popular vote vice state legislatures
C – The corrupt bargain – Definitely the end of the era of good feelings in 1824! 1. Five candidates: John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, And Crawford 2. Clay thought he would win the “solid” west but Jackson got numerous western votes. 3. The vote a. But Jackson had a plurality (In other words the largest number of votes cast but not a majority of the electoral college) b. The election went to the House of Representatives 1. Clay urged his supporters to support Adams. Adams appointed Clay Secretary of State 2. Jackson’s supporters accused Clay of making a “corrupt bargain” to become Secretary of State.
Rise of Democratic Politics 1824-1832 1824-all four candidates Democratic-Republicans, no Electoral college majority, Election goes to House of Reps. “Corrupt bargain election” – Clay throws support to J.Q. Adams, becomes Sec. of State [Clay, by “pure coincidence” , named Sec. Of State for Adams] Jackson, outraged, screams foul [calls it a “corrupt bargain”] 1824-1832 –Democratic- Republicans disintegrate Jackson, Van Buren become Democrats [modern Democratic party’s roots] Clay, Webster, become nucleus of new Whig Party The “second American party system” is born
The American Political Party Systems • America has always seemed to have two opposing political factions , but they haven’t always been the same • First American Party System: Federalists v. Anti-Federalists (Under Jefferson became known as Republicans or Democratic-Republicans) • Second American Party System: Democrats v. Whigs – Democrats were the party of Jackson and are still its lineal descendents. Whigs formed from ex-Federalists and the short lived (election of 1828) National Republicans • Third American Party System: Democrats v. Republicans (formed from Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats) these are the two modern American political parties
Jackson, most votes, lost! Angry!!! Clay, gave support to Adams, Sec. Of State John Quincy Adams 1767-1848 Sixth President 1825-1829 Corrupt Bargain? Calhoun, Secretary of War, Crawford, back to GA.
D. The John Quincy Adams presidency 1. Supported funding for internal improvements, (like Clay’s “American Plan”) opposed by New Yorker Martin van Buren (Erie canal completed, privately funded, wanted no govt. funded competition) 2. Intelligent, aloof, attempted to minimize politics After his defeat in 1828 he returned to Mass. to retire from public life. Unexpectedly, in 1830, he was elected to the House of Representatives, and there for the rest of his life he served as a leader. Above all, he fought against circumscription of civil liberties. In 1836 southern Congressmen passed a "gag rule" providing that the House automatically table (refuse to consider) petitions against slavery. Adams fought the rule for eight years and finally obtained its repeal. He represented the Amistad slaves in 1840 before the Supreme Court. He died as he lived, in public service, collapsing of a stroke on the floor of the House in 1848.
John Quincy Adams’ presidency: • supported internal improvements • appointed opponents to high positions, frequently confounding own party • intelligent, aloof, no effort to build political party machinery • Opposition: Martin van Buren,, well liked, built New York “machine”, [Albany Regency] convinced of need for two party competition [having an opposition party keeps your party focused] • Jackson, smarting from “corrupt bargain” election, building western support, becomes Van Buren’s ideal candidate in 1828, wins landslide victory
As a young lawyer he became involved in New York politics. As leader of the "Albany Regency," an effective New York political organization, he shrewdly dispensed public offices and bounty in a fashion calculated to bring votes. Yet he faithfully fulfilled official duties, and in 1821 was elected to the United States Senate. He became the closest political advisor to Andrew Jackson, succeeding him as President in 1837 Martin Van Buren
1828 election: • vile, nasty, “mudslinging” • Jackson portrayed as: “backwoodsman, crude, adulterer and/or “bigamist” [by Adams’ supporters] • Adams: elitist, aristocrat, adulterer, too much “learning” not enough “fight” [by Jackson’s supporters] • Reality: • Adams, bright, aloof, not comfortable campaigning, • Jackson, rich, fairly literate, portrayed himself as hero of the common man [inaccurate] Result: Jackson and John C. Calhoun swept in by huge majority, (twice the electoral vote) huge margins in South and West. End of the Democratic-Republicans
Jackson in office • Elected as an anticorruption business as usual president • Supported rotation in office kept out Republicans replaced with his supporters • He called it The spoils system Federal jobs became rewards for party loyalty vice ability • 2 . Politics • Jackson vetoed roads and other internal improvements entirely within states believing that if they helped only one state it was an improper expenditure of public money. • The Maysville Road veto was controversial because it was Henry Clay’s pet project
Decrying officeholders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be "so plain and simple" that offices should rotate among deserving applicants. As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party--the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson; and the National Republicans, (later Whigs, opposing him. Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 Seventh President 1829-1837
Democratization of American Politics: 1820s – 30s • lower [or no] property requirements for voting in most western states • written ballots vice “voice voting” • more elective offices. Fewer appointed • campaigning publicly, beer, BBQ • registering new voters • [Jacksonian] Democrats: • remainder of Republicans against big government, [like Jefferson] • Whigs [many former federalists] • Favored more [and more controlling] government, especially high tariffs • encouraged government sponsored economic development [Henry Clay’s]“American System”
Jacksonian politics • advised by Martin Van Buren – rotation in office [removal of opposition office appointees, filling with his. The “Spoils” system • Said government jobs so simple anyone could do them • Federal jobs now seen by many as appropriate rewards for political support. • Domestic policy • anti internal improvements [vetoed Maysville road, in Clay’s Home state of Kentucky, making a devout opponent of Clay] • seen as supporting high protective tariffs, alienating the South [especially] VP John C. Calhoun, South Carolinian] • Indian removal Act  spelled beginning of end for eastern Indians
The nullification controversy • John C. Calhoun the nationalist gradually became John C. Calhoun the state’s rights supporter • Calhoun disliked trade protectionism favoring the north • reformed his views and became a strict constructionist • Calhoun wanted to be president And needed southern votes • He approved of Virginia and Kentucky resolutions and disapproved of tariffs designed to keep cheap foreign goods out
High tariffs forced the south with limited manufacturing to buy northern made more expensive goods • Calhoun the viewed this as a sort of economic slavery • he believed that Federal laws should benefit all equally and that protective tariffs failed to do that • He anonymously wrote the “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” in 1828 which claimed tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional • He insisted states had the right to nullify Federal laws within their borders • Tied unfavorable Tariff laws to the possibility of future laws regarding limits on slavery which the entire south feared
Jackson and Calhoun crisis worsens • The Peggy Eaton affair • Jackson finds out Calhoun had tried to have in court martialed in 1818 (while Calhoun was sec. Of war and Jackson was hanging brits in Florida) • The Jefferson day dinner • Jackson’s toast “ Our union, It must be preserved “ • Calhoun’s toast “ The union – Next to liberty most dear .. It can only be preserved By distributing equally the benefits and burdens of the union “
Peggy Eaton was the daughter of a tavern keeper and the wife of Jackson's secretary of war. Both Andrew and Rachel Jackson had liked Peggy Eaton, and when her private love affairs became public knowledge, enveloping her in scandal, the President lent her his visible support. Although she was a cabinet member's wife and entitled to the civility such a position conveyed, the wives of other cabinet officials and much of Washington society refused to accept her. Jackson was furious. He demanded that his cabinet members make their wives accept Peggy Eaton. When this proved unsuccessful, he asked for the resignations of all his cabinet members save one. Margaret O’Neal (“Peggy”) Eaton 1799-1889
In 1831 Calhoun publicly acknowledges authorship of the “South Carolina exposition and protests” • November 1832 South Carolina nullifies the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 • March of 1833 Jackson signs : • The tariffs of 1833 proposed by Henry clay which greatly reduced the tariffs over a period of time (the “Olive Branch”) • The force bill which allowed the use of Federal force to collect the tariffs (“The Sword”) • South Carolina : • nullified the force bill • rescinded nullification of the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 thereby saving face
The bank Veto and the election of 1832 • Jackson hated the Bank of the United States • He believed it made the rich investors richer • He had lost money in the panic of 1819 and blamed the bank • Bank recharter • The bank had been recharterd for an additional twenty years in 1816 • The U.S. bank controlled credit to the state banks therefore controlling them as well • The U.S. bank was widely blamed for the panic of 1819 and seen by Jackson has holding themselves above the law
The powerful and aristocratic and Nicholas Biddle was the bank president • Henry Clay convinced Nicholas Biddle to apply to recharter the bank Four years early • Clay hoped to force a showdown with Jackson and get elected president If Jackson made a mistake • Jackson’s choices • Sign The recharter And extend the life of the bank he hated • Veto the bank and anger the bank’s supporters • Clay misjudged the public will (many , like Jackson hated the bank!)
Jackson vetoed the bill • He said “ The bank is a private privileged monopoly” • “It drains specie ( currency) From the west” • “It makes the rich richer and the potent more powerful” • Wildly popular in the west Jackson wins big in 1832 • Jackson, The unionist and a supporter of state’s rights within the constitution • Clay runs as a National Republican • American system – high tariffs and Federal support for internal improvements • Misjudged public reaction to bank Veto
Bank controversy and second party system 1833 to 1840 • War on the bank • Jackson was determined to kill the bank instead of merely let it die in four years • Biddle contracted credit ( called in loans to state banks ) • Jackson pulled Federal deposits from the U.S. bank and put them in state banks (pet banks) • The influx of capital allowed state banks to give more credit and issue more loans and Banknotes
two Anti bank arguments by the Democrats • “soft money” Democrats: they resented U.S. banks contracting credit and causing state banks to contract credit • The “hard money” Democrats disliked a paper money economy • LocoFocos: • Working man’s clubs in New York and other cities • Wanted only specie as valid currency, hated banks and paper money • Named “loco focos” the new patented self striking matches used to light the lamps in their meeting hall
B.Rise of the Whigs • 1. National Republicans morphed into the Whigs • a. Supported Clay’s American system • b. Supported government action to: • 1. Stop liquor usage • 2. More public education • 3. To create more active government • programs ( northerners only) • Catering to northern born Protestants which drove immigrant Catholics to the Democrats • Anti Masonry – was sparked by an 1826 scandal surrounding the disappearance of a man who was supposedly about to disclose the secrets of the Masonic order.
by 1836 – The Whigs had become a strong national party with a broad base of support • In the north reformers, commercial farmers Evangelical Clergy, and manufacturers • In the south planters and bankers • Whigs portrayed Jackson has “King Andrew the First” and compared him to King George the first
“King Andrew” is shown holding the veto and royal scepter, while trampling on the Constitution. This is not a complimentary cartoon, and was drawn by a Whig supporter.
The “Jackson friendly” cartoon below is entitled “The downfall of Mother Bank” Above, another Whig cartoon portraying Jackson as Caesar in the coliseum
The election of 1836 • Democrats run van Buren (Vice President) • The Whigs run three candidates • William Henry Harrison • Daniel Webster • And W. P. Mangum • Van Buren wins a clear electoral majority
Promising to continue Jacksonian policies, Van Buren was an easy winner in 1836, defeating a war hero and future president (Harrison) and one of the shining stars of the Senate and the greatest orator in its history (Webster). Unfortunately he had a greater enemy in Nicholas Biddle, and the Second Bank of the U. S. , dying, but determined to take Van Buren with it. Martin Van Buren 1782-1862 Eighth President 1837-1841
In 1828, the economic interests of Massachusetts having shifted from shipping to manufacturing, Webster backed the high-tariff bill of that year. Angry Southern leaders condemned the tariff, and South Carolina's John C. CALHOUN argued that his state had the right to nullify the law. Replying to a South Carolinian in a Senate debate in 1830, Webster defended the Union. "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" Daniel Webster Van Buren defeated both men in 1836 In 1811 he led Americans against the Shawnees who were organized by Chief Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet. Tecumseh was away looking for more men to help. The Prophet led the Shawnees. The Americans won the Battle of Tippecanoe. During the War of 1812 Tecumseh and Harrison met at the Battle of Thames. Tecumseh was killed during this battle. William Henry Harrison
the panic of 1837 • Paper money floods the market during the boom of 1835 and 1836 caused by Jackson’s transferring Federal funds into state banks • Bank of the U.S. still operating as a state bank in Pennsylvania fails Biddle is charged with fraud and theft • There’s a slight improvement Then it crashes again in 1839 resulting in a hard depression • Wages decreased by 1/3 between 1836 and 1842 • Some Religious groups “Millerites” Fear the end of the world began wearing white robes roads
(Contemporary cartoon) The parade of end-time prophets and messiahs has marched down through the ages to the present day. The most famous and certainly the most influential of these was William Miller. He was converted to Christianity in 1816 and began an intensive two year study of the Bible. At the end of his study he had formed this opinion: ''I was thus brought, in 1818, at the close of my two year study of the Scriptures, to the solemn conclusion, that in about twenty five years from that time (1818) all the affairs of our present state would be wound up'' Millerites were the direct progenitors of the Seventh day Adventist movement
Reasons for the collapse (panic) of 1837 • The specie circular – Issued by Jackson 1836 call for only precious metal to be used to pay public debts • Caused state banks to contract credit reduce loans issued and call loans due • Britain reduced gold sales to the U.S. in 1836 as well • Search for solutions • Van Buren Calls for creation of an independent treasury • The Democrats become the “anti-bank/ hard money” party
The Amistad Affair La Amistad Joseph Cinque (Sengbe Pieh) 1815-1879 John Quincy Adams around the time he defended the Amistad Africans
Cinqué was born in 1815 in what is now Sierra Leone, He was a married rice farmer with three children until he was captured by African slave traders illegally, violating many treaties, in 1839.He was taken to Cuba where he was sold with 52 others to Spaniards They were transported on a ship called the Amistad, with the intention of reaching Cuban sugar plantations. On June 30 Cinqué led a revolt. The Africans took prisoner the two merchants who had made the purchase, and demanded that they direct the ship back to Sierra Leone, but instead they directed the ship towards the United States.
After about two months, the Amistad reached United States waters near Long Island, New York. Members of the USS Washington came aboard, the Africans were charged with mutiny and murder, and they were taken to New Haven, Connecticut to await trial. In March 1840, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Africans mutinied to regain their freedom after being kidnapped and sold illegally. This was in large part due to the advocacy of former United States President John Quincy Adams, who served as the African's defense counsel. They were ordered to be permitted to return to Africa, against the protests of President Martin Van Buren. (Who apparently didn’t want to “offend” Spain)
The election of 1840 • Martin van Buren runs for the Democrats • William Henry Harrison runs as a Whig • He is a poor struggling Farmer • “Spin doctored” As the hero of Tippicanoe, defender of the frontier • “Tippicanoe and Tyler too” wins the election (VP candidate is John Tyler) • Actually campaigned by train, first to do so • Election of 1840 has huge voter turnout over 80 percent of white males voted in 1840
The rise of popular religion “The second Great Awakening” • In begins in the seventeen nineties in Connecticut As a series of revivals and sweeps the country • At meetings people seized with the spirit getting the “shakes” “speaking in tongues” • Methodists became the largest American Protestant sect • Religion seen as matter of the heart not the head
Spread back east by 1820 • The “burned over” district in western new York state Scene of intense revivalism • Evangelist Charles G. Finney • Rochester revival, Pioneered interdenominational cooperation • Stress “perfectionism” possibility of being freed from Sin • Significant increase in women’s involvement • Revival critics - Unitarians • Emerged as an offshoot of the Congregational Church in new England • Stress Jesus as a great teacher not divine Hence the name Unitarian as in only God is divine • Tended to attract the wealthy and affluent • Stressed character building By modeling Jesus’ behavior
The rise of Mormonism • Joseph Smith wrote “Book of Mormon” in 1827 • Contended it was copied from stones buried thousands of years earlier • Claimed that Hebrews had come to new world long ago • Claimed Jesus had appeared and worked miracles in the new world • Although controversial attracted many followers
“Some were contending for the Methodist faith, some for the Presbyterian, and some for the Baptist. . . . so great were the confusion and strife among the different denominations, that it was impossible . . . to come to any certain conclusion who was right, and who was wrong. . . .. . I kneeled down and began to offer up the desires of my heart to God. . . . I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head. . . . When the light rested upon me I saw two Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description. . . .. . . I asked the Personages who stood above me in the light, which of all the sects was right, and which I should join. I was answered that I must join none of them, for they were all wrong. . . . I soon found, however, that my telling the story had excited a great deal of prejudice against me among professors [believers] of religion, and was the cause of great persecution, which continued to increase; and though I was an obscure boy,. yet men ofhigh standing would take notice sufficient to excite the public mind against me, and create a bitter persecution; and this was common among all the sects all united to persecute me.” Joseph Smith 1805-1844 Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Subject to much prejudice, Mormons move gradually westward • Partly to be close to Indians whom they viewed as offshoots of early Hebrew tribes in America • Subject to hostility because the book of Mormon seemed to under cut the validity of the Bible • 1843 Smith had another revelation sanctioning polygyny (plural marriage, multiple wives) • Claimed Mormonism would be to Christianity what Christianity had been to Judaism, higher more perfected religion (Not a popular point of view with mainstream Christians) • Smith jailed in Nauvoo, Illinois for own protection, lynched by mob • Brigham Young leads Mormons to Utah in eighteen forties
Shakers • Founded by Mother Ann Lee In England late seventeen hundreds • To America’s 1774 established in New Lebanon, New York • Established communal groups, abstained from sex, Produced furniture elegant and simple • Named Shakers because of the dance they did when seized with the spirit
Shaker community , New Lebanon, New York Composed originally of mainly illiterate factory workers, the Shakers did not rely heavily on written doctrines and preferred first-person religious experiences. They did draw guidance from the Bible; the personal writings of Ann Lee (known as Mother's Wisdom ) and other spiritual leaders like Joseph Meacham; the series of Testimonies books; and other Shaker-produced journals and books testifying about the Shaker experience from a first-person point-of-view.
Shaker furniture is famous for simple, yet elegant design. Originally built to furnish Shake dormitories, it was in such demand that it became a source of income and financial support to some Shaker communities
The age of reform • Reform Movements largely result of religious revivalism in early eighteen hundreds spreading into areas of secular life • The war on liquor • Temperance movement stressed abstinence from alcohol • In the late eighteen twenties the average male consumed half a pint of liquor daily • liquor was seen with some justification as The cause of many social ills • Washington Temperance Societies attracted Men and women from all walks of life • Men “took the pledge” And women promised to smell their breath when they came home • in some places anti-whiskey laws were successfully passéd
“The Drunkard’s Progress” captures temperance attitudes towards drinking.