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Unit One- Politics

Unit One- Politics

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Unit One- Politics

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  1. Unit One- Politics Politics involves several aspects, such as policies, parties, election, government management, diplomacy, ect.

  2. I. Knowledge Contest 1. When and how often does U.S. launch the presidential campaign? 2. What are presidential qualifications in US? • The Constitution requires presidents to be _____________ citizens of the United States who are at least ___ years of age and have resided in the United States for ___ years. 3. Who might be the first woman to make a bid for the White House in 2008? natural-born 35 14

  3. sought-after • Election to the Presidency • The power of the presidency makes it the most __________ (吃香的) position in American politics. The Constitution originally provided for the election of the president and ____________ by the electoral college (总统选举团). Voters do not elect the president directly, they, however to vote for the electors who support a particular _________________ (总统候选人). The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of each state's representatives in both houses of Congress. vice president presidential candidate

  4. 538 • The District of Columbia, although having no representative in Congress, has three electors. Altogether there are ____electoral votes. All of each state's electoral votes go to the candidate winning the most votes in that state no matter how slim the margin. • 50个州选举人和哥伦比亚特区(the District of Columbia,美国联邦直辖区,即美国首都华盛顿)的3 名选举人共_______构成选举团人(the Electoral College)。在每一州中获得选举人票数最多的总统候选人便赢得该州的全部选举人票(winner-take-all)。获胜者必须拥有半数选票,即多于538/2,至少270张。如果没有候选人获得270张选举人票,宪法规定众议院投票选举总统。 538

  5. Primary Elections (预选) • Political parties choose their presidential nominees through primary elections and party caucuses (meetings预备会议). In these state contests, the major political parties—the ______________________ —select delegates to attend their party conventions. Primary voters and caucus participants choose delegates who will support their favored candidate at the convention. The party conventions, held in the summer before the November general election, formally nominate the winner of the primaries and caucuses. Democrats and Republicans

  6. Election Campaign The campaign for the presidency traditionally begins in early September and ends on Election Day—the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Candidates often complain about the length of the campaign period, which can require grueling 20-hour days of speechmaking and traveling. Even as they spread campaign themes through national television and radio campaigns, the candidates also make hundreds of speeches in cities and towns across the country to appeal to specific groups of voters.

  7. Election Day and Inauguration • The formal balloting (投票) of the electoral college, however, does not take place until the first Monday after the second Wednesday of December, when the electors meet in each state. These results are transmitted to the secretary of the Senate and are counted publicly before a joint session of Congress on January 6. Under the original provisions of the Constitution, the president and vice president were inaugurated on March 4 of the year following their election.

  8. In 1933 the 20th Amendment went into effect, moving the inauguration date up to ____________. At the inaugural ceremony, the new president recites anoath: I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. January 20

  9. II. Introductory Remark • In this unit, we just intend to focus on the topic about election, the key political issue in America in 2004. Actually, to clarify the process of presidential election (总统选举) is no easy task, you’re expected to get familiarized with the chief 2 parties in the U.S. first, that is, the Republican Party (共和党), also named GOP (Grand Old Party 大佬党) and the Democratic Party (民主党),

  10. II-1 The Democratic Party • Thomas Jefferson, in the late 1700's, started the first political party with the conviction that the federal government was assuming too much power over domestic policy and should be stopped. His party became known as the "Democratic" party when candidate Andrew Jackson became President in 1828. • Andrew Jackson was known as a man of the people. He took the Democratic party that Jefferson and his elite collegues had formed and turned it over to the citizens of the United States.

  11. II-2 The Democratic Party vs. The Republican Party • The Democratic Party held its first convention in 1832 to re-elect Andrew Jackson to a second term. Its convention began the Democratic National Committee in 1848. It has become the longest running political organization in the world. • The Republican Party held its first convention in1854, with supporters then including anti-slavery activists and advocates of the idea that the government should grant western lands to settlers free of charge.

  12. The donkey Story of Party Animals • Party animals involved statues of donkeys and elephants. _________ is the official animal of the Democratic Party. __________ represents the Republican Party. The status of an elephant as Republican Party’s symbol appears to be safe. Win or lose, both symbols have endured. • The elephant - symbol of the Republican Party since 1874 - remembers that GOP stands for “Grand Old Party,” but increasingly, the elephant is standing alone. The elephant

  13. When Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1828, his opponents tried to label him a “jackass”(蠢驴;笨蛋)for his populist views and his slogan, “Let the people rule.” Jackson, however, picked up on their name calling and turned it to his own advantage by using the donkey on his campaign posters. During his presidency, the donkey was used to represent Jackson’s stubbornness (顽固). • Thomas Nast, a famous political cartoonist, used the donkey first in an 1874 editorial cartoon to depict the Democrats as a donkeytrying to scare a Republican elephant.

  14. II-3 Timeline for 2004 Presidential Campaign • The United States elects a president every four years. Currently Republicans control not just the White House but also both houses of Congress. • In 2003, 9 Democrats, 8 men and 1 woman began competing for the Democratic Party nomination for president of the United States in the 2004 election, having entered the race for the chance to oppose President Bush.

  15. The candidates include Senators (参议员) John Edwards, Bob Graham, John Kerry and Joseph Lieberman, and former Senator Carol Moseley Braun. Others include Representatives(州议员)Richard Gephardt and Dennis Kucinich. Candidate Howard Dean is the former governor of Vermont (佛蒙特州). And, Al Sharpton is a Christian clergyman and a civil rights leader. • As a result, the veteran (老练的) John Kerry became the Democratic candidate to run for the 2004 presidential campaign after beating the youngest candidate John Edwards.

  16. II-4 About John Kerry • John Kerry received many honors for military service. He was a Navy officer during the Vietnam War. But later he opposed that war. In nineteen-eighty-four, Massachusetts voters elected him to the United States Senate. He maintains Democrats must support making America safer and stronger if they are to win the presidency. • He announced his position on issues like economy and taxes, home security, health care, education, the environment, etc.

  17. III. Translation • 唱名表决 • roll-call vote • 拉选票 • seek a vote • 不记名投票 • secret ballot • 选举人票 • electoral vote • 选举人制 • electoral system • 直接选举 direct election • 普选制 general election system • 等额选举 single-candidate election • 差额选举 competitive election • 补缺选举 by-election

  18. 最后的投票 make the final vote • 不信任投票 vote of non-confidence • 换届选举 election at expiration of office terms • 选举权和被选举权 the right to vote and the right to be elected

  19. Clinton vs. Bush • William J. Clinton • the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win a second term. George W. Bush the 43rd President of the United States. He was sworn into office on January 20, 2001, after a campaign. In the 2004 Presidential campaign, he successfully won a second term.

  20. Clinton attends in person to everything, trivial or critical; he and his advisors never fail to take part in the interminable meetings of politics or economy; he can memorize data well just like a computer. On the contrary, Bush dislikes a meeting that lasts over 15 minutes, and even loathes being bothered by confusing figures. • 克林顿是一部机器;那些无休止的政治或经济问题的会议,他与顾问们必定参加。相反,小布什痛恨那些超过15分钟的会议,更不喜欢人们用乱七八糟的数字去烦他。

  21. 克林顿从出任总统一开始就十分关注民意测验对他行为的认可程度。但是布什却大不一样。他从竞选时就说,他将以自己的准则做出各种决定。 • Clinton has cared very much about public approval presented by polls since his early presidency, where Bush, in a sharp contrast, proclaimed at the outset of his election that he would make all decisions on his own.

  22. 克林顿酷爱读书,而其继任者却非如此。前总统生活快活,风流倜傥,还经常喝上几口。但新总统自14 年前戒杯之后已滴酒不沾。 • Clinton is an avid reader, but his successor is not. Joyful, casual and elegant, the ex-president time and again drinks a little, but the new president has been a teetotal since he abstained from it 14 years ago.

  23. 小布什出身于得克萨斯州新英格兰贵族家庭; 前任总统是来自于普通家庭,经历艰辛,锤炼了自己的才能,他用自己的个人智慧和口才做事,而这正是继任者所缺乏的。 • Bush Jr. was born of a privileged WASP family in Texas, while the former, from an ordinary family, has tempered himself and developed his talents in hardships. He works with his wisdom and eloquence, which his successor is short of.

  24. Part A Snap Judgments I. Vocabulary Preparation: snap /  / made quickly, without careful thought 迅速的;仓促的 make a ~ decision / make a ~ search of … (Am. slang) It’s a ~ job. (= very easy job) slick /  / done in a skilful and attractive way; very good or attractive 巧妙的;吸引人的 a ~ show / a ~ time / a ~ TV presenter

  25. ad /  / an advertisement; a public notice offering or asking for goods, services, etc.广告 an ~ campaign / a classified/want ~ 分类/征聘广告 commercial /  / an advertisement on television or radio (广播、电视的)广告 run ~s 主办广告节目 candidate /  / someone who is competing in an election 候选人 endorse a ~ 同意(支持)某候选人 a leading ~ for the presidency 总统的主要候选人

  26. glimpse /  / a quick look at someone or something that does not allow you to see them clearly 瞥见;一瞥 get/catch a brief ~ of the city demonstrate /  / to show or describe how to do something or how something works 示范;演示 ~ sth. to sb. / ~ how to do sth. clip /  / a short part of a film or television program that is shown by itself, especially as an advertisement 片段;剪辑 go through all the ~s on an event / a televised news ~

  27. rate /  / to think that someone or something has a particular quality, value, or standard 评估;评价 ~ sb.’s English at a B 给某人的英语打B分 We ~ your services highly. 我们对你的服务评价很高。 weird /  / very strange and unusual, and difficult to understand or explain 怪异的;神秘的;不可思议的 a ~ story 诡异的故事 a ~ idea 古怪的念头

  28. VERB glance at, down, over, round, through … glance /  / a quick or brief look一瞥;匆匆一看 take a ~ at the newspaper headlines steal ~es at sb. prehistoric /  / relating to the time in history before anything was written down 史前的 in ~ times 在史前时期 ~ man/remains/animals 史前人类/遗迹/动物

  29. II. Notes Let’s pay tribute to the renowned anchor - late Peter Jennings (1938-2005, born in Canada) the lead anchor and senior editor of ABCNEWS’ World News Tonight, where he has established a reputation for independence and excellence in broadcast journalism. He became an American citizen in 2004. He died of lung cancer at the age of 67 on August 8, 2005 彼得•詹宁斯

  30. ABC theAmerican Broadcasting Company, a television and radio network in the United States, today owned by the Walt Disney Company 美国广播公司 • Robert Krulwich a New York-based ABCNEWS correspondent who appears regularly on Nightline. He also reports for World News Tonight With Peter Jennings, and Good Morning America.罗伯特•克鲁尔维奇

  31. III. Spot Dictation • Peter Jennings: Thank you for joining us this evening: Snap Judgments. Candidates in the political campaign are going to spend hundreds of millions of dollars this year trying to 1 with slick 30-second commercials. But maybe all they need are five-second ads, even two seconds! ABC’s Robert Krulwich tonight on how important 2 is. • (People yelling in background) influence voters that very first impression

  32. Robert Krulwich: Now it’s getting interesting, and as these candidates flash by on TV for a second or two, even 3 makes an impression. A bigger impression than you know. • Nalini Ambady: Yeah, I think you are making an impression. the briefest glimpse

  33. a bunch of • Robert Krulwich: Psychology professor Nalini Ambady knows this, because a few years ago she did an experiment. She asked 4 students like these to come to a classroom here at Harvard and she showed them short videos of teachers 5 . Let me demonstrate. She showed a guy like me, lecturing in a lecture hall, except you (talking to professor) turned off the sound. So they watched something like this, a teacher teaching 6 for how long? (asking the professor) • Nalini Ambady: These clips are 10 seconds long. they never met with no sounds

  34. Robert Krulwich: Ten seconds? • Nalini Ambady: Uh huh. • Robert Krulwich: That’s all? • Nalini Ambady: Yeah. • Robert Krulwich: Then—we’re re-creating this here (showing chart), the students were asked to rate the teacher in a number of categories. And 7 were then compared to a course evaluation filled out by students who’d have the teacher three days a week for a whole semester. And what happened? • Nalini Ambady: Uhm…there was 8 [in their evaluations]. It was amazing! those ratings very little difference

  35. Robert Krulwich: So students who saw the professor for ten seconds gave the exact same ratings as the students who knew him for months! • Nalini Ambady: Precisely! That’s exactly what we found. • Robert Krulwich: Ok, now just for the fun of it, you get 9 students and you show them clips of professors that last two seconds—two seconds and no sound! Which is…like, nothing! • Nalini Ambady: Yeah. [laughing] It passes by fast. • Robert Krulwich: And after a two-second look, student ratings were 10 to the full semester evaluation. That is so weird! a new set of almost identical

  36. Robert Krulwich: Ah, well, we had the same reaction. • Robert Krulwich: But if a two-second glimpse can tell you that much about a teacher, just possibly a two-second glance on the TV can tell you something important about a candidate for president. From prehistoric times we have evolved to look at faces and make snap judgments: is he going to hurt me, is he going to help me? Brains, says professor Ambady, can decide a lot in two seconds. So quick impressions matter! Robert Krulwich, ABC News.

  37. Part B Hillary Clinton’s Journey I. Vocabulary Preparation: • exclusively /  / only; not shared with others 独有地;独家地 e.g. The article was written ~ (专门撰写) for Newsweek. • memoir /  / a book by someone important and famous in which they write about their life and experiences 回忆录;自传 • scandal /  / action, attitude, etc. that is disgraceful or shameful 丑闻;丑行;丑事 e.g. spread/uncover/cover up ~ about sb.

  38. wring someone’s neck to kill someone by twisting their neck or pressing their throat with your hands, a rope, etc. used when you are very angry with someone 扭断脖子;掐死 • aftermath /  / the period of time after something such as a war, storm, or accident when people are still dealing with the results 某事件后的一段时期;事后 e.g. in the ~ of war (election) / endure an ~ (后果) • run for to be a candidate in an election (for a political position) 竞选(某一政治职位)

  39. senate /  / the smaller and more important of the two parts of the government with the power to make laws, in countries such as the US, Australia, and France 参议院 • confess /  / to admit, especially to the police, that you have done something wrong or illegal 承认;坦白 e.g. He ~ed his crime honestly to the police. He ~edhaving killed / that he had killed his boss. • due /  / scheduled; expected 预定的;预期的 e.g. His next book is ~ out shortly. He is about ~ for a promotion.

  40. headline /  / a line of words printed in large letters as the title of a story in a newspaper, or the main points of the news that are broadcast on television or radio 标题;内容提要 e.g. a ~ figure 重要新闻人物 a ~-making incident 成为头条新闻的大事 be in the national ~s 成为全国各大报纸的头条新闻 • break /  / to disclose; to make known 泄露;发布 e.g. ~ the bad news gently to somebody • rumor /  / (instance of) information spread by being talked about but not certainly true 谣言;传闻 e.g. spread/confirm a ~ that …/about… 传播/证实谣言

  41. intern /  / someone, especially a student, who works for a short time in a particular job in order to gain experience 实习生;见习生 e.g. work as ~s • log /  / a record of events 日志;记录 e.g. write up/keep a ~ 记录航海/飞行日志 • cross-examine /  / to question someone closely, especially with regard to answers or information given previously 盘问;诘问 • testify /  / to give evidence; declare as a witness, especially in court 提供证据;作证 e.g. ~ on behalf of the accused man 为被告作证

  42. oath /  / (words used in making a) solemn promise to do something or solemn declaration that something is true 宣誓;誓词;誓约 e.g. swear/take an ~ to do sth. 宣誓;发誓 break/violate an ~ that …违背誓言 • level withsomeone to speak honestly to someone, after hiding some unpleasant facts from them 对…说实话 e.g. I don’t think you’re ~ing with me. 我认为你对我不坦诚。 • furious /  / full of violent anger 狂怒的;暴怒的 e.g. be ~ about/at/over sth. at/with sb. 因某事对某人大发雷霆

  43. dumbfounded /  / extremely surprised or astonished 惊愕的;目瞪口呆的 I’m ~ by the news. • beside oneself to be feeling so angry, excited, etc. that one finds it difficult to control themselves; in a state of extreme excitement or anger 几乎发狂的;不知所措的 e.g. beside oneself with joy/rage 狂喜/狂怒 • jury /  / group of people in a law court who have been chosen to listen to the facts in a case and to decide whether the accused person is guilty or not guilty 陪审团;评判委员会 sit/serve on the ~ 任陪审员 • air /  / to broadcast something on radio or television (在无线电或电视)广播;播放 ~ the show/course

  44. II. Notes • Elizabeth Vargas (1962-) a correspondent for ABC News 20/20 since June 1997 and an anchor for World News Tonight Saturday伊丽莎白•瓦加斯 • Barbara Walters (1929-) an American television commentator known for her many years as a network anchor on news programs, on the Today show, for her years on the newsmagazine 20/20 and on the estrogen-chat program The View巴巴拉•沃尔特

  45. Eastern Time the standard time in the 5th time zone west of Greenwich, used in the eastern United States (美国)东部时间 • Monica Lewinsky (1973-) an American businesswoman who was caught up in a sex scandal investigation when she was an intern working at the White House. While at the White House she had a short-term sexual relationship with the President. The news of this affair, and the resulting investigation, and impeachment, became known as the Lewinsky scandal. 莫妮卡·莱温斯基

  46. Bill Clinton (1946-) the 42nd President of the US, from 1993 to 2001. Clinton was a popular President for most of his period in office, because the US economy was strong. He is also known for a sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky that happened near the end of the time he was president. 比尔·克林顿 • In order to know more about the sexual scandal, PLS watch the following interview about Bill Clionton…

  47. III. Bill Clinton’s Interview • Dan Rather: In her book, Senator[1] Hillary Clinton describes the moment when her husband finally told her the truth about Monica Lewinsky. She wrote that, upon hearing the news, she could hardly breathe, was gulping[2] for air, and started crying and yelling at him, asking him, quote, “Why did you lie to me?” We asked Bill Clinton to tell us about that moment, which you have already heard him describe as his worst personal day in the White House. [1] senator [; ] n. 参议员 [2]gulp [; ] v. 深呼吸;喘大气

  48. Dan Rather: In your book, you write about how furious[1] Mrs. Clinton was when she found out the truth. How did you tell her? • Bill Clinton: I had a sleepless night, and woke her up and sat down on the side of the bed and just told her. And it was awful[2]. But I had to do it, because the grand jury testimony[3] was coming up and I was going to tell the truth to the grand jury[4], and I wanted her to know before it happened. I had to tell her. [1] furious [; ] adj. 狂怒的;狂暴的 [2]awful [; ] adj. 可怕的;糟糕的 [3]testimony [; ] n. 证词;证供 [4]grand jury 大陪审团

  49. Dan Rather: And what did she say? What did she do? • Bill Clinton: Well, I don’t want to go into the details. She was angry and she was mad and she was mad about me not telling her before. I think almost as mad that I hadn’t told her about it, as to what I’d done. • Dan Rather: Well, in your book, you write about how furious she was, and I’m quoting you now, you said, “I woke her up in the White House early one morning. She looked at me as if I had punched her in the gut (内脏).” • Bill Clinton: That’s right.

  50. Dan Rather: That pretty much the scene? • Bill Clinton: Yeah. Well, you know, we’d been together a long time, we’d been started going together in 1971. And we were each other’s best friends. We’d been through everything together. We knew just about everything there was to know about each other. And when you go through the kind of struggles we have, it almost becomes inexplicable[1] that anything would be so bad you wouldn’t tell it. [1] inexplicable [; ] adj. 无法说明的;费解的;莫名其妙的