I. Chapter 18The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America TheGreatPolitical Debateof the1880’s? ? ?
I. The Politics of the Status Quo, 1877-1893
I.A The National Scene • The Passive Presidency – Most arduous task = dispensing spoils (govt. jobs) • President Garfield – Assassinated by deranged office seeker – Pendleton Act (1883), 1st step toward civil service reform
The National Scene Party Politics – President took back seat to Congress and Congress did little Traditional contrast between parties was muddled Tariff big issue Campaign Politics – equal balance, politicians cautious not to offend I.A
The National Scene Sectional Politics – Reconstruction abandoned, mudslinging and personal attacks, pomp and ceremony “Ma,Ma, where’s my paw?” 1884 - Democrats = Rum, Romanism and Rebellion Debate over what to do with surplus????? I.A
The Ideology of Individualism Laissez-Faire – People support the government, but the government should not support the people Gospel of Wealth – Rags to Riches stories aplenty…Andrew Carnegie William Lawrence – protestant ethic I.B
The Ideology of Individualism Social Darwinism – Herbert Spencer – human society evolved through competition and any interference with social progress is bad I.B
The Supremacy of the Courts Courts become the defenders of private property (and big business) Corporations are now people! 14th Amendment protects people from being deprived of life liberty or property – used to restrain government regulations Manufacturing not interstate commerce and income tax unconstitutional I.C
Cultural Politics Parades, conventions and political paraphernalia Party Loyalty – heresy for protestant Northerners to be Democrat or Southerners to be Republican. II.A
II.A Two-Party “Balance”
II.A Well-Defined Voting Blocs DemocraticBloc RepublicanBloc • White southerners(preservation ofwhite supremacy) • Catholics • Recent immigrants • Urban working poor (pro-labor) • Most farmers • Northern whites(pro-business) • African Americans • Northern Protestants • Anti-immigrant • Most of the middle class • Western Farmers
II.A DemocraticBloc Issues RepublicanBloc • Low Tariff • Anti-Prohibition • Pro-immigrant • Increasing money Supply – inflation • Greenbacks/free coinage of silver • States Rights • High Tariff • Pro-voting rights • Anti-immigrant • Tight control on money supply – Gold backed dollar • Favor Blue Laws – legislating morality
Organizational Politics “All politics is local” Both parties well organized structures Precinct and Ward – local Precinct-Ward-County-State-National Precinct and Ward responsible for getting out the vote II.B
Organizational Politics Machine Politics – internal organization of party made up of insiders working for party in exchange for public jobs or connections. Usually one man rule – Party Boss. Inner conflict not over policy, but spoils. ie. Republicans, Stalwarts vs. Half-Breeds Results not all bad II.B
Organizational Politics Mugwumps – Republican defectors who wanted an end to machine politics – Elitist, not populist Influenced public debate regarding cleaning up political process – Secret (Australian Ballot) II.B
Women’s Political Culture Suffragists overcome division of reconstruction Concentrate on state campaigns Women operated within their “sphere to fight for change – particularly prohibition (WCTU) II.B
State Date Begun Territory of Wyoming 1869 Wyoming 1890 Colorado 1893 Utah 1896 Idaho 1896 Arizona 1912 Washington 1910 California 1911 Kansas 1912 Oregon 1912 Territory of Alaska 1913 Montana 1914 Nevada 1914 New York 1917 Michigan 1918 Oklahoma 1918 South Dakota 1918
Race and Politics in the New South Blacks remain staunch Republicans Voter intimidation and suppression common Democrats = Redeemers Class strife – Elite vs. hill-country farmers (Populist), hard not to see need for cooperation with blacks – Lukewarm at best II.C
Race and Politics in the New South Black Disenfranchisement – Democrat leaders see alliance of poor white and Blacks as a threat “Reform” – Literacy Tests, Grandfather Clause exempted those who were entitled to vote BEFORE 15th Amendment Were still poll taxes/property requirements II.C
Race and Politics in the New South Jim Crow – Brand of White Supremacy emerges Segregation Supreme Court Upholds in Plessy v. Furguson = separate but equal Upholds disenfranchisement of blacks as long as race was not a specified criteria in Williams v. Mississippi II.C
Race and Politics in the New South Public vilification of blacks commonplace Lynchings and race riots Causes Younger generation of Blacks Competition for jobs w/ poor whites Populist threat to one party rule, elite power brokers accept demagogue politicians II.C
Race and Politics in the New South Grimes County Texas – Populist/Republican coalition holds on until 1900 – terrorism used to wrest control back to Democrats II.C
1. How did Progressivism and organized interest groups reflect the new political choices of Americans? • 2. What reforms did American women, Urbanites, and African Americans seek? • 3. Evaluate and explain how and why President Roosevelt expanded the role of the Federal Government. • How did President Wilson seek to accommodate his progressive principles to the realities of political power?
Resisting White Supremacy Some resisters (often paid with life) Ida B. Wells Atlanta Compromise – Booker T. Washington = “Accommodationist” Tuskegee Institute – Promote education, work property ownership = civil rights II.C
The Crisis of American Politics 1890’s Democrat victories seem to usher in new Democrat age McKinley Tariff - Prohibition Party – siphon Republican votes Panic of 1893 – profound political consequences Unemployment over 20% Falling grain/cotton prices II.D
The Populist Revolt Farmers Alliances tap into anti-monopoly, big business sentiment Became politicized and abandoned traditional Republican/Democrat alliances Local-State-National Peoples Party (Populist) crated 1892 II.D
The Populist Revolt 1892 – James Weaver presidential candidate 1,000,000,000 votes, 4 states Roots in Grange – Social clubs = women active (Mary Elizabeth Lease, “raise less corn and more hell…” Pitted themselves (producers, including labor)) against money power II.D
To what extent did the Populist revolt reshape American politics? Do Now – Copy reading quiz questions for Wednesday. 1. How did Progressivism and organized interest groups reflect the new political choices of Americans? 2. What reforms did American women, Urbanites, and African Americans seek? 3. Evaluate and explain how and why President Roosevelt expanded the role of the Federal Government. 4. How did President Wilson seek to accommodate his progressive principles to the realities of political power?
The Populist Revolt Ideology – Opposed Laissez-Faire 1892 Platform Nationalization of Railroads Protection of land from monopolies Graduated Income Tax Subtreasury Plan Free Coinage of Silver II.D
The Populist Revolt Free Silver – Coinage of Silver would increase the money supply (inflation) and secure funding for populist candidates from silver mining industry Double edged sword – Labor did not want inflationary cycle II.D
Money and Politics II.D • Money Policy – Always a contentious issue • Debtors and commodity producers vs. “sound money” – creditors, fixed incomes
Money and Politics History – Before Civil War $ printed by state chartered banks U.S. Banking Act of 1863 – Feds print greenbacks After war “sound money” interests lobby for specie – printed money to be backed by gold and silver in treasury Era of chronic deflation and tight credit II.D
Money and Politics History Continued…. Silver becomes more valuable as a metal than money and silver coins disappear. 1873 silver dropped as currency Inflationists urge govt to resume bimetallic policy purchasing silver at a ratio of 16-1 with gold This would greatly increase $$ supply II.D
Money and Politics II.D • Cleveland and Silver • Coxey’s Army • Pullman Strike • Tariff still high • Refuses to cave on Silver Issue • Negotiations with Wall Street reinforced image he was in cahoots with big business….
Money and Politics II.D • Election of 1896 – Dems abandon Cleveland, Nominate William Jennings Bryan – passionate advocate of “Free Silver” • “Cross of Gold” Speech
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) The “Great Commoner”
Bryant’s“Cross of Gold” Speech You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon across of gold!