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An Empire for Liberty 1790-1824

An Empire for Liberty 1790-1824

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An Empire for Liberty 1790-1824

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  1. 9 An Empire for Liberty 1790-1824

  2. An Empire for Liberty1790-1824 • North American Communities From Coast to Coast • A National Economy • The Jefferson Presidency • Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America • The War of 1812 • Defining the Boundaries • Conclusion

  3. “Burning of the White House” by Leslie Saalburg.

  4. Chapter Focus Questions • Where did the new nation find economic opportunities in the world market? • How did Jefferson’s presidency calm the political differences of the 1790s? • What values were embodied in republican agrarianism?

  5. Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) • What unresolved issues between the United States and Britain led to the War of 1812? • What were the causes of Indian resistance and how did the War of 1812 resolve them? • How did the Missouri Compromise reveal the dangers of expansion?

  6. North America and Mandan Villages

  7. Expansion Touches Mandan Villages on the Upper Missouri • Lewis and Clark in Mandan villages (North Dakota) • The Mandan • Agriculture, hunting, lived in matrilineal clans • Lewis and Clark offered Mandan a military and economic alliance. • Fort Clark (trading base) • Diseases (smallpox) decimated Mandans

  8. North American CommunitiesFrom Coast to Coast

  9. Sitka, the center of Russian activities in Alaska, in 1827

  10. MAP 9.1 North America in 1800

  11. The New Nation • Only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities. • 100,000 Native Americans lived the American West • Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Boston, and New York dominated trade. • In 1800, the United States was surrounded by European colonies.

  12. To the North: British North America and Russian North America • The heart of British North America was the former French colony of Quebec. Loyalists comprised most of the other settlers. • The American Revolution caused Great Britain to create a national legislature under strict executive control. • British influence spread from the St. Lawrence to Hudson’s Bay to the Pacific Northwest.

  13. To the North: British North America and Russian North America • Russian settlements in Alaska were an extension of its conquest of Siberia. • The Russians established Sitka in 1804. • Russia established new settlements in California, including Fort Ross. • British and Russian expansion both threatened and frustrated American expansion.

  14. The launching of a ship from Becket’s Shipyard in Essex, Massachusetts, in 1802

  15. To the West and South:The Spanish Empire • To protect their interests against Russian and British expansion, the Spanish had established a chain of missions throughout California. • The Spanish also controlled New Orleans, though in 1800 it was an international port.

  16. To the West and South:The Spanish Empire (cont'd) • Americans were concerned that whomever controlled New Orleans could choke off commerce along the Mississippi River.

  17. Haiti and the Caribbean • The Caribbean produced 80 to 90 percent of Europe’s sugar. • Racially and socially, the Caribbean colonies resembled the American South. • The Caribbean slave societies were jolted by the successful slave revolt in Haiti.

  18. Trans-Appalachia • The trans-Appalachia West was the most rapidly growing region of the United States. • By 1800, 500,000 Americans lived in Trans-Appalachia. • Cincinnati served as major trading center for the Ohio River Valley. • River traffic to and from New Orleans increased annually.

  19. Trans-Appalachia (cont'd) • Americans were concerned over who controlled the city.

  20. A National Economy

  21. FIGURE 9.1 American Export Trade, 1790–1815

  22. Cotton and the Economy of the Young Republic • Most Americans lived in rural, agricultural communities. • The plantation regions of the South were heavily involved in marketing crops overseas. • Trade with Britain was considerably less than before the Revolution.

  23. Neutral Shipping in a World at War • In 1790, American shipping had been hurt by the end of ties with Great Britain. • The outbreak of war in Europe and American neutrality vastly expanded trade, fueling the growth of American coastal cities.

  24. Neutral Shipping in a World at War (cont'd) • The economic boom included: • American entry into the Northwest fur and China markets; • an active and growing shipbuilding industry.

  25. The Jefferson Presidency

  26. Thomas Jefferson

  27. Republican Agrarianism • Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong president with strong party backing. • Jefferson’s ideal was an agrarian republic of roughly equal yeoman farmers. America’s abundant land allowed Jefferson to envision a nation of small family farms.

  28. Republican Agrarianism (cont'd) • Jefferson hoped American expansion would forestall the Malthusian crisis threatening Europe.

  29. Jefferson’s Government • Jefferson worked to reduce the size of the federal government. • The Post Office was the only contact most Americans had with the federal government. • The unfinished state of the nation’s capital reflected the emphasis on local communities.

  30. The original Capitol building.

  31. An Independent Judiciary • While removing Federalist officeholders, Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme Court decision. • Marbury v. Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post, but it established the principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary • Chief Justice Marshall became a leader of judicial nationalism.

  32. MAP 9.2 Louisiana Purchase

  33. Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase • France and Britain conflict • Napoleon’s acquisition of the Louisiana Territory threatened American access to the Mississippi River. • Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory. • The purchase doubled the size of the United States

  34. Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase (cont'd) • Destruction of Indians and the spread of slavery challenged Jefferson’s vision of liberty in Louisiana.

  35. Incorporating Louisiana • The immediate issue was how to incorporate the French and Spanish inhabitants of the Louisiana territory. • The solution was to maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana. • Despite a diverse population of creoles, immigrants and Americans, free persons of color and Indians won little protection of their rights in Louisiana.

  36. Texas and the Struggle for Mexican Independence • Acquisition of Louisiana put the United States in conflict with Spain. • America now shared a vague boundary with Mexico’s Texas. • Several populist revolts fueled a strong independence movement in Mexico. • Americans from Aaron Burr in 1807 onward saw Texas and Mexico as ripe for American expansion.

  37. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America

  38. (left) Tecumseh, a Shawnee military leader, and (right) his brother Tenskwatawa

  39. Problems with Neutral Rights • In his second term, Jefferson faced problems protecting American neutrality. • British ships seized American vessels trading in the French West Indies and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. • The 1807 Chesapeake incident highlighted American weakness and brought the nation to the brink of war.

  40. The Embargo Act • Congress first imposed a boycott and then passed the Embargo Act on foreign commerce, but the policy: • did not change British policy; • caused a deep depression; and • led to widespread smuggling.

  41. Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” • Elected in 1808, Madison faced renewed Federalist opposition. • Under Madison, the Embargo Act was repealed. • Other similar acts passed later also proved ineffective. • Frustration with government policy mounted.

  42. A Contradictory Indian Policy • Indian affairs remained among the most difficult foreign problems. • Western tribes resisted American incursion into their territory. • Jefferson hoped that Indians would either be converted to white civilization or moved across the Mississippi River. Neither policy won much Indian support.

  43. A Contradictory Indian Policy (cont'd) • Accommodationist-traditionalist factions split many tribes.

  44. Indian Alternatives • Shawnee: leading force of Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley • Tecumseh sought refuge further west. • His brother, Tenskwatawa, The Prophet, called for a rejection of white ways. • Tecumseh formed a pan-Indian confederacy and was initially defensive but soon advocated military resistance.

  45. Indian Alternatives • While Tecumseh was in the South, Americans led by William Henry Harrison defeated Tenskwatawa’s followers at Tippecanoe. • In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the British.

  46. MAP 9.3 Indian Removals and Resistance, 1790–1814

  47. The War of 1812

  48. Devastation in Washington

  49. MAP 9.4 The War of 1812

  50. “A Scene on the Frontiers as Practiced by the ‘Humane’ British and their ‘Worthy’ Allies”