9 An Empire for Liberty 1790-1824
An Empire for Liberty1790-1824 • North American Communities From Coast to Coast • A National Economy • The Jefferson Presidency • Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America • The War of 1812 • Defining the Boundaries • Conclusion
Chapter Focus Questions • Where did the new nation find economic opportunities in the world market? • How did Jefferson’s presidency calm the political differences of the 1790s? • What values were embodied in republican agrarianism?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) • What unresolved issues between the United States and Britain led to the War of 1812? • What were the causes of Indian resistance and how did the War of 1812 resolve them? • How did the Missouri Compromise reveal the dangers of expansion?
Expansion Touches Mandan Villages on the Upper Missouri • Lewis and Clark in Mandan villages (North Dakota) • The Mandan • Agriculture, hunting, lived in matrilineal clans • Lewis and Clark offered Mandan a military and economic alliance. • Fort Clark (trading base) • Diseases (smallpox) decimated Mandans
The New Nation • Only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities. • 100,000 Native Americans lived the American West • Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Boston, and New York dominated trade. • In 1800, the United States was surrounded by European colonies.
To the North: British North America and Russian North America • The heart of British North America was the former French colony of Quebec. Loyalists comprised most of the other settlers. • The American Revolution caused Great Britain to create a national legislature under strict executive control. • British influence spread from the St. Lawrence to Hudson’s Bay to the Pacific Northwest.
To the North: British North America and Russian North America • Russian settlements in Alaska were an extension of its conquest of Siberia. • The Russians established Sitka in 1804. • Russia established new settlements in California, including Fort Ross. • British and Russian expansion both threatened and frustrated American expansion.
The launching of a ship from Becket’s Shipyard in Essex, Massachusetts, in 1802
To the West and South:The Spanish Empire • To protect their interests against Russian and British expansion, the Spanish had established a chain of missions throughout California. • The Spanish also controlled New Orleans, though in 1800 it was an international port.
To the West and South:The Spanish Empire (cont'd) • Americans were concerned that whomever controlled New Orleans could choke off commerce along the Mississippi River.
Haiti and the Caribbean • The Caribbean produced 80 to 90 percent of Europe’s sugar. • Racially and socially, the Caribbean colonies resembled the American South. • The Caribbean slave societies were jolted by the successful slave revolt in Haiti.
Trans-Appalachia • The trans-Appalachia West was the most rapidly growing region of the United States. • By 1800, 500,000 Americans lived in Trans-Appalachia. • Cincinnati served as major trading center for the Ohio River Valley. • River traffic to and from New Orleans increased annually.
Trans-Appalachia (cont'd) • Americans were concerned over who controlled the city.
Cotton and the Economy of the Young Republic • Most Americans lived in rural, agricultural communities. • The plantation regions of the South were heavily involved in marketing crops overseas. • Trade with Britain was considerably less than before the Revolution.
Neutral Shipping in a World at War • In 1790, American shipping had been hurt by the end of ties with Great Britain. • The outbreak of war in Europe and American neutrality vastly expanded trade, fueling the growth of American coastal cities.
Neutral Shipping in a World at War (cont'd) • The economic boom included: • American entry into the Northwest fur and China markets; • an active and growing shipbuilding industry.
Republican Agrarianism • Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong president with strong party backing. • Jefferson’s ideal was an agrarian republic of roughly equal yeoman farmers. America’s abundant land allowed Jefferson to envision a nation of small family farms.
Republican Agrarianism (cont'd) • Jefferson hoped American expansion would forestall the Malthusian crisis threatening Europe.
Jefferson’s Government • Jefferson worked to reduce the size of the federal government. • The Post Office was the only contact most Americans had with the federal government. • The unfinished state of the nation’s capital reflected the emphasis on local communities.
An Independent Judiciary • While removing Federalist officeholders, Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme Court decision. • Marbury v. Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post, but it established the principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary • Chief Justice Marshall became a leader of judicial nationalism.
Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase • France and Britain conflict • Napoleon’s acquisition of the Louisiana Territory threatened American access to the Mississippi River. • Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory. • The purchase doubled the size of the United States
Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase (cont'd) • Destruction of Indians and the spread of slavery challenged Jefferson’s vision of liberty in Louisiana.
Incorporating Louisiana • The immediate issue was how to incorporate the French and Spanish inhabitants of the Louisiana territory. • The solution was to maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana. • Despite a diverse population of creoles, immigrants and Americans, free persons of color and Indians won little protection of their rights in Louisiana.
Texas and the Struggle for Mexican Independence • Acquisition of Louisiana put the United States in conflict with Spain. • America now shared a vague boundary with Mexico’s Texas. • Several populist revolts fueled a strong independence movement in Mexico. • Americans from Aaron Burr in 1807 onward saw Texas and Mexico as ripe for American expansion.
(left) Tecumseh, a Shawnee military leader, and (right) his brother Tenskwatawa
Problems with Neutral Rights • In his second term, Jefferson faced problems protecting American neutrality. • British ships seized American vessels trading in the French West Indies and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. • The 1807 Chesapeake incident highlighted American weakness and brought the nation to the brink of war.
The Embargo Act • Congress first imposed a boycott and then passed the Embargo Act on foreign commerce, but the policy: • did not change British policy; • caused a deep depression; and • led to widespread smuggling.
Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” • Elected in 1808, Madison faced renewed Federalist opposition. • Under Madison, the Embargo Act was repealed. • Other similar acts passed later also proved ineffective. • Frustration with government policy mounted.
A Contradictory Indian Policy • Indian affairs remained among the most difficult foreign problems. • Western tribes resisted American incursion into their territory. • Jefferson hoped that Indians would either be converted to white civilization or moved across the Mississippi River. Neither policy won much Indian support.
A Contradictory Indian Policy (cont'd) • Accommodationist-traditionalist factions split many tribes.
Indian Alternatives • Shawnee: leading force of Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley • Tecumseh sought refuge further west. • His brother, Tenskwatawa, The Prophet, called for a rejection of white ways. • Tecumseh formed a pan-Indian confederacy and was initially defensive but soon advocated military resistance.
Indian Alternatives • While Tecumseh was in the South, Americans led by William Henry Harrison defeated Tenskwatawa’s followers at Tippecanoe. • In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the British.
“A Scene on the Frontiers as Practiced by the ‘Humane’ British and their ‘Worthy’ Allies”