Latin 1B Grammar Review • Ecce Romani Chapters 1-17
Nouns names of persons, places, things, qualities, or acts • Definition: • Properties: • Case: word forms (endings) that tell you the grammatical role in the sentence • e.g. Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Ablative, Vocative • Number: Singular or Plural • Gender: Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter • Declension: noun type using different case endings
first declension (usually feminine, sometimes masculine) • Stem=genitive singular-ae • aqua, aquae, f.-water First Declension Endings First Declension Twinkle, Twinkle
SECOND declension (masculine, ends in -us or -r) • Stem=genitive singular-i • animus, animi, m.-soul • nuntius, nuntii, m.-messenger • puer, pueri, m.-boy Second Declension Second Declension Endings Jingle Bells
SECOND declension (neuter=neither masculine or feminine) • Stem=genitive singular-i • signum, signi, n.-sign • auxilium, auxilii, n.-help Second Declension Endings Second Declension Ridin’ Dirty
THIRD declension (masculine and feminine use the same endings) • soror, sororis, f.-sister • flos, floris, m.-flower • mater, matris, f.-mother • Stem=genitive singular-is Third Declension Third Declension Endings Chant
THIRD declension neuter • lumen, luminis, n.-light • caput, capitis, n.-head • onus, oneris, n.-work • Stem=genitive singular-is Third Declension Third Declension Endings
THIRD declension i-stem • 3 Types: • 1. Nominative ends is -s or -x, stem ends in two consonants • 2. Nominative, Genitive=-is, -is or -es, -is • 3. Nominative ends in -e, -al, or -ar • urbs, urbis, f.-city (1) • civis, civis, m/f.-citizen (2) • mare, maris, n.-sea (3) Third Declension i-Stem M/F Endings Third Declension i-Stem Neuter Endings
NOUN CASE: Nominative • 1. SUBJECT NOMINATIVE -acts as the SUBJECT of the verb Aurelia sedet. • 2. PREDICATE NOMINATIVE -is linked to the subject by “IS” Aurelia est defessa.
NOUN CASE: GENITIVE “OF” or “ ‘S ” • 1. GENITIVE OF POSSESSION -indicates ownership vocem Aureliae audio. • 2. GENITIVE OF DESCRIPTION Genitive NOUN + ADJECTIVE Pair -indicates a characteristic of another noun in the sentence vir tantae prudentiae es! • 3. PARTITIVE GENITIVE (genitive of the whole) -the genitive is the “WHOLE” that the “part” belongs to partem urbis video.
NOUN CASE: DATIVE • 1. DATIVE OF INDIRECT OBJECT “TO/FOR” -noun to which something is given, shown, or said *GIVE, SHOW, TELL librum, puero do.
NOUN CASE: ACCUSATIVE • 1. ACCUSATIVE DIRECT OBJECT -noun that RECEIVES the action of the verb Cornelia Aureliam salutat. C APPI PATSIE ircum d ost rope n er nte rans ub ntra xtra Cappi Patsie, the sidekick • 2. ACCUSATIVE PLACE TO WHICH -indicates place to which with a preposition and accusative noun Cornelia in villam ambulat.
NOUN CASE: ABLATIVE USES WITH A PREPOSITION! • 1. ABLATIVE OF PLACE WHERE -indicates location mons in Italia est. • 2. ABLATIVE OF PLACE FROM WHICH ine n e ub ro b/a um x/e S I D S P A C E -indicates place from which via a villa mea ducit. Sid Space, the Ablative Astronaut
NOUN CASE: ABLATIVE “BY MEANS OF” “WITH” “BY” • 3. ABLATIVE OF MEANS -indicates the means or instrument (tool) with which something is accomplished stylo scribit. • 4. ABLATIVE OF MANNER -indicates the manner/style in which some action is accomplished C) no preposition + ABL noun/adjective pair magnogaudio B) cum + ABL noun/adjective pair magno cum gaudio A) cum + ABL noun cum gaudio
NOUN CASE: ABLATIVE “IN” “ON” “AT” • 5. ABLATIVE OF TIME WHEN -indicates when some situation takes place (no preposition) aestate male dormio. • 6. ABLATIVE OF TIME WITHIN WHICH “IN” “WITHIN” “DURING” -indicates the time SPAN within which some situation takes place (no preposition) tribus horis aurum inveniemus.
NOUN CASE: VOCATIVE from the verb voco, vocare • VOCATIVE OF DIRECT ADDRESS -used for direct address -calling someone by name • VOCATIVE = NOMINATIVE • Singular & Plural Singular & Plural EXCEPT!!! Vocative Singular of 2nd Declension -us and -ius Nouns
ADJECTIVES • Agreement with Nouns -Adjectives must agree with the noun they are modifying in GENDER, NUMBER, and CASE -does not have to look the same as the noun Examples of Noun/Adjective Pairs: pulchra puella fortis canis defessus servus defessus canis
ADJECTIVES • 2-1-2 ADJECTIVES -uses 2nd declension forms for masculine and neuter and 1st declension forms for feminine -US, -A, -UM
ADJECTIVES • THIRD DECLENSION ADJECTIVES -adds -I’s THREE TYPES: 1) -R, -RIS, -RE (acer, acris, acre) 2) -IS, -IS, -E (dulcis, dulcis, dulce) 3) VARIES, VARIES, -IS (clemens, clemens, clementis) Third Declension Adjective Endings Third Declension Adjective Singular Plural Singular Plural ingens, ingentis (huge)
NUMBERS • 11 XI UNDECIM • 2 II DUO, DUAE, DUO • 12 XII DUODECIM • 1 I UNUS, UNA, UNUM • 3 III TRES, TRIA • 13 XIII TREDECIM • 4 IV QUATTUOR • 14 XIV QUATTUORDECIM • 5 V QUINQUE • 15 XV QUINDECIM • 6 VI SEX • 16 XVI SEDECIM • 7 VII SEPTEM • 17 XVII SEPTENDECIM • 8 VIII OCTO • 18 XVIII DUODEVIGINTI • 9 IX NOVEM • 19 XIX UNDEVIGINTI • 10 X DECEM • 20 XX VIGINTI
ADVERBS • describe VERBS, ADJECTIVES, and other ADVERBS • tell you WHEN, WHERE, HOW, HOW OFTEN, and HOW MUCH 2-1-2 ADVERBS Adjective stem + -E= Adjective“ly” Adjective in -US laetus, laeta, laetum LAETE Adjective in -ER (keep E) miser, misera, miserum MISERE Adjective in -ER (no E) pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum PULCHRE
ADVERBS THIRD DECLENSION ADVERBS Adjective stem + -ITER= Adjective“ly” celer, celeris, celere CELERITER par, par, paris PARITER fortis, fortis, forte FORTITER potens, potens, potentis POTENTER
VERBS • PROPERTIES • PERSONAND NUMBER -shows what kind of subject is performing the verb -look at the verb ending • VOICE -indicates whether the subject is acted upon -ACTIVE OR PASSIVE
VERBS • MOOD -indicates whether the verb is an expression of fact, generalized action, command, etc. -INDICATIVE, INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLE, SUBJUNCTIVE • STEM -Basic foundation of verb: various tenses, moods, and voices are formed by adding endings to stems -PRESENT, PERFECT, PARTICIPIAL • CONJUGATION -Verb Type: different conjugations use slightly different endings -1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th • TENSE -indicates when the verb occurs -PRESENT, IMPERFECT, PERFECT, FUTURE, PLUPERFECT, FUTURE PERFECT
VERBS • PERSONAL ENDINGS
VERBS • PRESENT TENSE -(Infinitive-re)+ Personal Endings -verbs, is verbing, does verb -Present Connector Vowels 1-A, 2-E, 3-I, 4-I
VERBS • IMPERFECT TENSE -(Infinitive-re)+ vowel + Personal Endings -was verbing,used to verb, kept verbing • -BAM -BAMUS • -BAS -BATIS • -BAT -BANT -Imperfect Connector Vowels 1-A, 2-E, 3-(I)E, 4-IE
IRREGULAR VERBS • TO BE (sum, esse, fui, futurus) • Present: • Imperfect: • TO BE ABLE (possum, posse, potui) • Present: • Imperfect:
IRREGULAR VERBS • TO WANT (volo, velle, volui) • Present: • Imperfect: • TO NOT WANT (nolo, nolle, nolui) • Present: • Imperfect:
IRREGULAR VERBS • TO GO (eo, ire, ivi (ii), itus) • Present: • Imperfect: • TO BRING, BEAR, ENDURE (fero, ferre, tuli, latus) • Present: • Imperfect:
INFINITIVES • SUBJECT INFINITIVES • Infinitive can act as a nominative singular noun • to run delights me, it delights me to run, running delights me • currere Marcum defatigat. • TO VERB • based on present stem • COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVES • There are some verbs that make sense only if they are combined with an infinitive • I am able TO VERB • natare possumus
IMPERATIVES-Commands to one or more than one noun • Present stem + endings = VERB!!! • POSITIVE COMMANDS • NEGATIVE COMMANDS • noli/nolite + infinitive= DON’T VERB!!! • ACTIVE IMPERATIVE ENDINGS • example: noli rogare! nolite rogare!