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Latin Grammar

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  1. Latin Grammar Comparison of Adjectives

  2. Comparison of Adjectives • In English, adjectives have three degrees: • Positive degree—old • Comparative degree—older • Superlative degree—oldest • Compare: • new, newer, newest • ugly, uglier, ugliest • good, better best • beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful

  3. Positive, Comparative, and Superlative Degrees • Latin, too, has these degrees • longus • longior • longissimus • Compare: • altus, altior, altissimus • stultus, stultior, stultissimus • bonus, melior, optimus

  4. Comparative Degree • longus, -a, -um = long • To make its comparative, put –ioron its stem: longior • Other examples: • stultus ➔ stultior • facilis➔ facilior

  5. Comparative Degree • The form in –ioris actually masculine and feminine. • The neuter ends in –ius. • So the full name of the comparative form is longior, longius(or longior, -ius) • Compare: stultior, stultius(stultior, -ius) facilior, facilius(facilior, -ius)

  6. Declining Third Declension Adjectives. • You may remember that most third-declension adjectives are i-stems and have i-stem endings.

  7. Declining Comparative Adjectives • Comparatives are third-declension, but they aren’t i-stems, so they use consonant stem endings.

  8. Superlatives To make a superlative, add –issimus to the adjective stem. Examples: longus➔ longissimus stultus➔ stultissimus audāx➔ audācissimus

  9. Superlatives All adjectives whose first form ends in –er, oddly, add –rimus. Examples: pulcher➔ pulcherrimus miser➔ miserrimus celer➔ celerrimus

  10. Superlatives All a few adjectives that end in –ilis, like facilis and similis make their superlatives like so: Examples: facilis➔ facillimus similis➔ simillimus

  11. Good News • Superlatives are easy to decline. • They all decline just like multus, -a, -um

  12. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives • Just as English has good, better, best and bad, worse, worst, Latin has some irregular adjectives. bonus, melior, optimus malus, peior, pessimus multus, plus, plūrimus magnus, maior, maximus

  13. The End