Latin Grammar The Ablative: New Uses Comparison Degree (measure) of difference The Genitive of Description (Grammar for 4B, pp. 214-15.)
Two New Ablatives • Comparatives are forms like fortior = stronger pulchrior = more beautiful stultius = more stupidly • Two kinds of ablatives are commonly used with comparatives: • Ablative of Comparison. • Ablative of degree (or measure) of difference.
Ablative of Comparison • Instead of using quam to mean than, you can use the ablative. hoc oppidumestpulchrius quam illud. = hoc oppidumestpulchriusillō. (This town is prettier than that one.) • This comes from the true ablative (from). • This literally means This town is more beautiful from that one. • It is common in languages to use fromto express the notion of than.
Ablative of Comparison • More examples: haecuiaestlongiorillā. lūnaest minor sōle. quisesttēstultior?
Ablative of Degree of Difference • (Your book calls this measure of difference, but most people call it degree of difference.) • It gives some quantity that modifies a comparative. Marcus estmultōstultior. (Marcus is much more stupid = Marcus is [by] much more stupid) • This is a use of the “with” ablative. It tells with or by what quantity Marcus is more stupid.
Ablative of Degree of Difference • More examples: illud bellum fuittribusannīslongius. duābusunciīsaltior sum. hoc simulācrumestunōpedealtior.
Both at Once! VerrēsestmultōpeiorCicerōne. eaaedisestmultīsannīsantiquiorfānō
Genitive of Descripton • Do you remember the ablative of description? uirmagnāuirtūte • It turns out that there is also a genitive of description. • It can be used instead of the ablative and means the same. uirmagnaeuirtūtis • As with the ablative of description, there must be an adjective.