Latin Grammar The Ablative: Three More Uses: Attendant Circumstances Manner With Verbs (Grammar for 4B, p. 215.)
Attendant Circumstances • Sometimes the ablative indicates that an action occurs with some surrounding circumstances. Caesar cum magnōdolōrepopulīmortuus est. (Caesar died with great grief of the people = to the great griefof the people, Caesar died.) • This ablative is usually used with cum, but sometimes the cum is left out. Caesar magnōdolōrepopulīmortuus est.
Ablative of Manner • The ablative of manner tells in what manner an action is performed. nūntius in forum cum celeritāteingressus est. • It usually has a cum. But if it has an adjective, the cum is optional. in aedīsmagnā cum cūrāingressīsumus. = in aedīsmagnācūrāingressīsumus.
Review • You have now learned several ablatives that can be translated into English with the word with. • Among them are: • ablative of accompaniment • ablative of means • ablative of attendant circumstances • ablative of manner. • One of these always uses cum; two usually use cum; one never uses cum. • Let’s review them.
Review • Ablative of Accompaniment cum MarcōLampsacumabeō. • Always a person or people; always with cum.
Review • Ablative of Means dominusseruumpugnīsuerberauit. • Something that is used as a tool; never with cum.
Review • Ablative of Manner mīlites cum fortitūdinepugnābant. • Some abstract quality—speed, courage, fear, and so on; usually with cum. • cumis optional when there is an adjective. mīlitēsmagnā cum fortitūdinepugnābant. = mīlitēsmagnāfortitūdinepugnābant.
Review • Ablative of attendant circumstances. magnā cum laude mea studiaperfēcī. • Some surrounding circumstance, not a tool, not a way of doing something. • Usually with cum, but not always. .
Ablative with Verbs • Some verbs require the ablative. • Two big ones are • ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum (use) stilōūtor. • fruor, fruī, frūctus sum (enjoy) eōuīnōfruor.