Latin Grammar Fourth Principal Part of Verbs The Future Participle (Grammar 3C, pp. 168-72)
The Fourth Principal Part • You have been learning the fourth principal part of non-deponent verbs for some time now. • But your book is introducing them for the first time. • The way to learn these is just to memorize lists of principal parts. • We will be using it to form the future participle.
The Fourth Principal Part • The fourth principal part of verbs ends in –us or -um • Transitive verbs (verbs that take direct objects) have –us. • Intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take direct objects) have –um. amō, amāre, amāuī, amātus habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus eō, īrē, iī, itum ueniō, uenīre, uēnī, uentum
The Future Participle • The future participle of non-deponent verbs is formed by removing the –us or –um from the fourth principal part and adding –ūrus. amātus => amātūrus uentum => uentūrus factus => factūrus
The Future Participle • The future participle of deponent verbs is formed by removing the –us from the perfect deponent participle and adding –ūrus.(The perfect deponent participle is really the same form as the fourth principal part innon-deponent verbs.) ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum => ēgressūrus minor, minārī, minātus sum => minātūrus
The Future Participle • The future participle is an adjective of the first and second declension like multus, -a, -um. • It means • about to X • on the point of Xing • intending to X • going to X
The Future Participle • Examples: uirōsēgressūrōsuīdī. Iohannēs in aedīsinitūrus Marcum conspicātus est. Iulia locūtūra est. moritūrītēsalutāmus!
A Side Note • Sometimes, when verbs don’t have normal last principal parts, the future particple is give instead. sum, esse, fuī, futūrus fugiō, fugere, fūgī, fugitūrus
A Side Note • The English word future comes from futūrus: future time (adjective) future (noun ?< futūra = things going to be)