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Latin Grammar

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  1. Latin Grammar The Demonstratives: hic, haec, hoc iste, ista, istud ille, illa, illud is, ea, id

  2. Demonstratives • The verb dēmōnstrōin Latin means to point out. • Demonstratives are words that point, • like this or that in English. this dog that dog

  3. Demonstratives • In Latin, we have learned two demonstratives so far: • hic, haec, hoc (= this) • ille, illa, illud (= that)

  4. Demonstratives • In English, this is used for things near the first person; that is used for things near the second or third person.

  5. Third Person This dog. That dog. Second Person First Person

  6. Latin Demonstratives and English Demonstratives • So English has two demonstratives: • this for things near the first person • that for things near the second person and third person. • Latin has THREE demonstratives that are used like English this and that. • hic, haec, hoc for things near the first person • iste, ista, istud for things near the second person • ille, illa, illudfor things near the third person.

  7. iste, ista, istud

  8. Third Person istecanis. hic canis. illecanis. First Person Second Person

  9. Facts to Know • hic, haec, hoc is the demonstrative of the first person • iste, ista, istudis the demonstrative of the second person • ille, illa, illudis the demonstrative of the third person.

  10. is, ea, id • is, ea, id is another demonstrative.

  11. is, ea, id • is, ea, id is not used to point in space. • It is used to point to things mentioned in conversation. • It translates in several ways: • this • that • he, she, it, they

  12. herī in uiācanemuīdī. eumcanem ego quoqueuīdī.

  13. is, ea, id • Latin has first and second person pronouns, singular and plural: ego, tū, nōs, uōs • Oddly, it has no third person pronouns—no he, she, it, and they. • Instead, it uses is, ea, id.

  14. is, ea, id • John went to school yesterday. He arrived at 8 a.m.

  15. herī in uiācanemuīdī. eum ego quoqueuīdī.

  16. Facts to know • Latin has no third person pronouns. • Instead, it uses the demonstrative is, ea, id

  17. End