Latin Grammar The Ablative of Means (Grammar 3C, p. 172)
The Ablative • The ablative has many uses. • We first saw it with prepositions. • Many prepositions require it.
The Ablative with Prepositions • The ablative is required by all prepositions that mean from: • ā/ab • dē • ē/ex • cum • sine • in, sub
The Independent Ablative • Then we started learning the independent ablative. • The independent ablative is the term used for the ablative on its own, without a preposition. PREPOSITIONS
The Ablative of Description • The first independent ablative we learned was the ablative of description: mīlesmagnāuirtūte
Ablative of Time • Ablative of time hōc tempore eānocte
Ablative of Means • The independent ablative is used to tell what tool is used to do an action. • We call this the ablative of means. • It is translated with. stilus, -ī, m. = stylus haecfēminastilōscrībit.
Ablative of Means • Latin distinguishes between doing something with a thing as a tool and doing something with a person as a companion. • Doing something with a thing is ablative of means, and no cum(with) is used. haecfēminastilōscrībit.
Ablative of Accompaniment • Doing somethng with a person as a companion requires a cum. • This use is called ablative of accompaniment. in urbemcum Marcōabeo.
Ablative of Accompaniment mīlitēscum Marcō portameffregunt. mīlitēs Marcus
Ablative of Means uirī uirīMarcō portameffregunt. Marcus porta
A Note on Cum • Cum is a preposition and usually goes before nouns: cum Marcō cum uirō cum seruā
A Note on Cum • But with pronouns, cumoften must be attached after the pronoun: mēcum tēcum nōbīscum uōbīscum sēcum quōcum quibuscum
Summary • We have now met three uses of the ablative without prepositions, that is, of the independent ablative: • ablative of description. • ablative of time. • ablative of means.
Summary • The ablative of means does NOT use cum. fēmina stilōscribit. • The ablative of accompaniment uses cum. in urbem cum Marcōabeō