Latin Grammar Formation of the Perfect Tense of Deponent Verbs (Grammar from 3B, pp.154-56)
The Perfect of Non-Deponents • We have already learned the perfect of non-deponent verbs. • It’s easy to make. • Merely remove the “-ī” from a verb’s third principal part, and add the following endings: Remember: These endings are unique to the perfect!
The Perfect of Non-Deponents • amō, amāre, amāuī, amātus
The Perfect of Non-Deponents • capiō, capere, cēpī, captus
Fact to Know • Non-deponent verbs (with some minor exceptions) of all conjugations, regular and irregular, form the perfect in the same way.
Perfect of Deponent Verbs • The perfect of deponent verbs is even easier to form than that of non-deponents. • The third principal part of a deponent verb is the first-person singular perfect form. minor, minarī, minātus sum: minātus sum = I threatened (have threatened) ingredior, ingredī, ingressussum: ingressussum = I entered (have entered)
Perfect of Deponent Verbs • Note that the first word in the third principal part of a deponent verb is a participle. minātussum ingressussum • A participle is an adjective made from a verb. • This participle declines just like multus, -a, -um, that is, as an adjective of the first and second declension
Perfect of Deponent Verbs • Being adjectives, these participles have to agree in gender and number with the subject of the sentence. • Just as a man says bonus sum but a woman says bona sum, • a man must say minātussum or ingressussum, but a woman must say minātasum or ingressasum
Perfect of Deponent Verbs • To conjugate the perfect of deponent verbs, we simply conjugate the sumof the third principal part. • But we have to also change the form of the participle to agree with the subject.
Fact to Know • All deponent verbs of all conjugations form the perfect in the same way. • Rember, the nice thing about the perfect, both non-deponent and deponent, is that all verbs form their perfect in the same way!
Perfect of Deponent Verbs • Examples: minātuses. minātaes. Marcus minātus est. seruamināta est. minātīsumus. minātaesumus. seruīminātīsunt. meretrīcēsminātaesunt.