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Latin Grammar. Formation of the Perfect Tense of Deponent Verbs (Grammar from 3B, pp.154-56). The Perfect of Non-Deponents. We have already learned the perfect of non-deponent verbs. It’s easy to make.

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latin grammar

Latin Grammar

Formation of the Perfect Tense of Deponent Verbs

(Grammar from 3B, pp.154-56)

the perfect of non deponents
The Perfect of Non-Deponents
  • We have already learned the perfect of non-deponent verbs.
  • It’s easy to make.
  • Merely remove the “-ī” from a verb’s third principal part, and add the following endings:

Remember: These endings are unique to the perfect!

the perfect of non deponents1
The Perfect of Non-Deponents
  • amō, amāre, amāuī, amātus
the perfect of non deponents2
The Perfect of Non-Deponents
  • capiō, capere, cēpī, captus
fact to know
Fact to Know
  • Non-deponent verbs (with some minor exceptions) of all conjugations, regular and irregular, form the perfect in the same way.
perfect of deponent verbs
Perfect of Deponent Verbs
  • The perfect of deponent verbs is even easier to form than that of non-deponents.
  • The third principal part of a deponent verb is the first-person singular perfect form.

minor, minarī, minātus sum:

minātus sum = I threatened (have threatened)

ingredior, ingredī, ingressussum:

ingressussum = I entered (have entered)

perfect of deponent verbs1
Perfect of Deponent Verbs
  • Note that the first word in the third principal part of a deponent verb is a participle.

minātussum

ingressussum

  • A participle is an adjective made from a verb.
  • This participle declines just like multus, -a, -um, that is, as an adjective of the first and second declension
perfect of deponent verbs2
Perfect of Deponent Verbs
  • Being adjectives, these participles have to agree in gender and number with the subject of the sentence.
  • Just as a man says

bonus sum

but a woman says

bona sum,

  • a man must say

minātussum or ingressussum,

but a woman must say

minātasum or ingressasum

perfect of deponent verbs3
Perfect of Deponent Verbs
  • To conjugate the perfect of deponent verbs, we simply conjugate the sumof the third principal part.
  • But we have to also change the form of the participle to agree with the subject.
fact to know1
Fact to Know
  • All deponent verbs of all conjugations form the perfect in the same way.
  • Rember, the nice thing about the perfect, both non-deponent and deponent, is that all verbs form their perfect in the same way!
perfect of deponent verbs5
Perfect of Deponent Verbs
  • Examples:

minātuses.

minātaes.

Marcus minātus est.

seruamināta est.

minātīsumus.

minātaesumus.

seruīminātīsunt.

meretrīcēsminātaesunt.