A Brief Introduction to Political Ideologies (beliefs) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A Brief Introduction to Political Ideologies (beliefs)
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A Brief Introduction to Political Ideologies (beliefs)

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  1. A Brief Introduction to Political Ideologies (beliefs)

  2. Liberalism • “Liber” means free – Latin • Economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) • Belief that individuals could be free with limited government

  3. Liberalism - values Intellectual Values • Strong commitment to intellectual freedom Economic Values • Generally, economic freedom. • Stronger commitment to economic equality with limited govt. intervention in economy

  4. Conservatism • “conservare” – to save • Emerged in Britain as reaction to the excesses of liberalism • Major thinker: British statesman Edmund Burke (1729-97) • Strong belief in tradition • Against radical change

  5. Conservatism - values Intellectual Values • Commitment to intellectual equality through censorship • A bit of freedom Economic Values • Strongly believe in economic freedom

  6. Socialism • Associated with human rights • First ideas date back to Plato, famous Greek philosopher of the fourth century B.C.E. • Modern socialist ideas – more closely linked to Jean-Jacques Rousseau of the Enlightenment

  7. (socialism cont’d) • And to Robert Owen of the Industrial Revolution • Belief that humans - basically good • Belief that progress and innovation – good • Belief that government itself could make individuals free

  8. Socialism - values Intellectual Values • Support intellectual freedom Economic Values • Support economic equality (community& govt. ownership of resources)

  9. Communism • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels co-wrote “The Communist Manifesto: in 1848 • Like socialists, they believed in economic equality, but thought it would come about by violence, not cooperation • In theory, a truly communist society would abolish private property, and government would disappear • In reality, communist regimes have governments that intrude into every aspect of economic and intellectual life • Ideology is linked to a vision of the future

  10. Communist Leaders Kim Jong-Il (North Korea) Fidel Castro (Cuba)

  11. Communism - values Intellectual Values • Intellectual equality (censorship used heavily) Economic Values • Economic equality (sharing of property & resources)

  12. Fascism • “fasces” – Latin, denotes a bundle of rods bound together around an axe • Rods symbolize government’s power to keep law & order/control • Axe symbolizes their authority to mete out punishment & death • Ideology is linked to the past • Individual freedoms permitted only if they contributed to the good of the nation

  13. Fascism cont’d • Based on idea that a mythical, ideal age once existed which could be reborn • In this mythical era, citizens were racially “pure” and ranked in a strict social order ruled by a strong father figure Benito Mussolini • Nazis under Adolf Hitler

  14. Fascism - values Intellectual Values • No room for intellectual freedom Economic Values • Limited freedom • Tightly regulated businesses & property that must be run in the interest of the country