Political ideologies
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Political Ideologies. Democracy. A type of gov’t which allows citizens to elect their leaders. Other characteristics associated with democracy: freedom of the press freedom of religion innocent until proven guilty . Liberalism.

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  • A type of gov’t which allows citizens to elect their leaders.

  • Other characteristics associated with democracy:

  • freedom of the press

  • freedom of religion

  • innocent until proven guilty


  • Simply put, most democracies offer a range of political choices between liberal on the left of the political spectrum and conservative on the right. Liberals generally believe:

  • people are mostly good by nature

  • hence we should enjoy intellectual, religious and economic freedom

  • Liberals opposed the idea of “Divine Right of kings” during the French Revolution


  • Conservative philosophy comes from the Latin term “conservare” which means to save traditions and established government & religious institutions. Edmund Burke was one of the original conservative philosophers.


  • A type of government which demands total obedience of its citizens. The gov’t controls every aspect of life in the country. (ie: Hitler’s Germany, Stalin’s USSR).


  • an economic system in which all citizens are free to own their own property and equipment for production.

  • Competition between businesses and industries keeps prices fair and drives the economy.

  • Usually goes hand in hand with democracy (USA, England, France, Canada...)


  • aims for economic equality and individual freedom

  • believes the community, not wealthy individuals should own the means of production in Canada

  • the NDP has traditionally been our socialist party-it has forced the mainline parties (Liberal & Conservative) to implement socialism

Socialism for canadians
Socialism for Canadians

  • For Canadians this translates into a high level of government intervention with (taxes are steep to pay for)

  • Old age & disability pensions

  • Employment insurance

  • Health care

  • Social Assistance


  • An economic system created by Karl Marx in his “Communist Manifesto.” There is no private property. It is taken from the wealthy class (bourgeoisie) by the working class (proletariat) in a revolution.

  • All means of production are henceforth owned by the state (public)

    • IE: farms, factories and equipment


  • Fascism is born out of a crisis in a country

  • A “father figure” declares that he has solutions

  • Italy’s Benito Mussolini 1922 - 1945

  • Germany’s Adolf Hitler 1933 - 1945

Fascism looks like
Fascism looks like

  • Extreme nationalism

  • parades, rallies, banners and flag displays

  • In Germany - belief in a superior race

  • a belief that the state has been cheated and is in need of international justice

  • Minorities can be mistreated if they do not match the template set by dictator

  • Examples of such “castaways” in Nazi Germany:

  • JewsHandicapped

  • Intellectual “weaklings”

  • Political opponents

    • It wasn’t safe to talk politics


  • Fascism can lead to militarism

  • Italy took over Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935

  • Germany invaded Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland...

  • A dictator takes over and democracy is tossed out - along with many personal freedoms

  • Fascists are opposed to communism

Review of the political spectrum
Review Of the Political Spectrum

  • Totalitarianism = total dictatorship

  • Totalitarianism tends to live at both (extreme) ends of the spectrum.

Canada s political spectrum
Canada’s Political Spectrum

  • Conservatism - a tad to the right of centre

  • Liberalism - a tad to the left of centre

  • Socialism (NDP) - stretches a little more to left.

Civil disobedience
Civil Disobedience

  • The act of intentionally breaking the law to protest the laws one considers unjust (bad)

  • Three principles:

  • Does not involve violence

  • Should only be used against laws that are seriously harmful

  • Requires taking responsibility for one’s actions. Must face punishment to show the strength of one’s beliefs.

Famous examples
Famous Examples

  • Mohandas Gandhi used non-violent civil disobedience to protest taxing of the poor and discrimination of women and the under privileged

  • Nelson Mandela used non-violent civil disobedience to protest apartheid in South Africa

  • Martin Luther King Jr. used it to fight against segregation in the USA

Clayoquot sound a canadian example
Clayoquot Sound: a Canadian Example

  • Provincial government wanted to log the forest in Clayoquot Sound

  • Protesters organized a “sit-down” where they sat in the middle of the road to block trucks and workers

  • Police had to arrest the protesters

  • 750 people were arrested

  • Caused the government to rethink logging practices and change their policy