Political Ideologies Political Ideological Views of The Role of Government & Social Change
Defining Political Ideologies • Political Ideologies – sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics.
Traditional Ideological Spectrum • This political identification no longer accurately/completely describes various political positions. • Ex.) Both Joseph Stalin & Gandhi would be considered on this spectrum to be ‘left/liberal’ because they agree with a strong(er) government and collective social programming. • However are they the same politically or ideologically? • NO !!
Updated Ideological Spectrum • Political Compass Version • Accounts for beliefs related to: • Role of Government (Economics) • Social Change
Political Ideologies Role of Government 1.) Liberalism • Emphasis on individual political & economic freedom • Maximize freedom for all people – speech, religion, association • Citizens have the right to disagree with government/leaders John Locke Thomas Malthus Thomas Jefferson Adam Smith
Conservative Ideology • Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself. • Political mood or movement aimed at preserving older or traditional values, economic systems, and laws. Edmund Burke the British Conservative.
Political Ideologies Role of Government 2.) Communism • Value equality over freedom • Rejects idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity • State ‘takeover’ will eliminate inequalities & exploitation • Individual liberties must yield to the needs of society/state Vladimir Lenin Ho Chi Minh Joseph Stalin Mao Zedong
Political Ideologies Role of Government 3.) Socialism • Value equality • State = strong role in regulating economy • State = provide social benefits • Value freedom • Private Ownership • Free Market Principles Karl Marx Hugo Chavez
Political Ideologies Role of Government 4.) Fascism • Devalue individual freedoms • Reject the value of equality • Accept inferiority/superiority • State has the right to mold society & economy Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini
Political Ideologies Social Change (1) Radicalism • Rapid, dramatic changes need to be made to the existing society • Current system cannot be saved; must be overturned; replaced Russian Revolution (1917) is seen as a Radical-led revolution of the Russian government and society.
Political Ideologies Social Change (2) Liberalism • Supports Reform & gradual change • Political/Economic systems are not broken/lost, just need to be repaired/improved When applying the story of the Tortoise & the Hare to social change, Liberalism would be similar to the Tortoise.
Political Ideologies Social Change (3) Conservatism • Less supportive of change than radicalism and liberalism • The state is very important for law & order • See change as disruptive and dangerous
Political Ideologies Social Change (4) Reactionary • They oppose both revolution & reform • Also find the status quo unacceptable • Want to turn back the clock • Re-institute earlier political, social, economic institutions that once existed