The Political Spectrum • The political spectrum is a line along which are placed the various political ideologies and political parties • This line has a center, a left side and a right side • The extreme ends of the line represent extreme political beliefs while the center is associated with more moderate beliefs
The Political Spectrum I Center Left Right
The Political Spectrum II • The center of the political spectrum is associated with the democratic form of government. • The extreme ends of the line on both the right and the left are totalitarian in form.
Democracy • Direct democracy, where all citizens participate in government, originated with the ancient Greeks. • A Republic practices indirect democracy through elected representatives who speak for the people. • In a democracy the gov/state exists to serve the citizen.
Totalitarianism • Totalitarian forms of government are found at the extreme ends of the political spectrum on both the right and the left. • The gov/state exercises total control in this form of government. • In a totalitarian regime the individual exists only to serve the gov/state.
The Political Spectrum Totalitarian Democratic Totalitarian
The Political Spectrum • The political beliefs of the left side of the spectrum support economic equality and change or progress in society • The extreme left is associated with Communism • Socialism and Social Democratic constructs are located on the left inside the circle – to various degrees
The Political Spectrum V - The Left Wing Communism Socialism
Communism • Karl Marx wrote the ‘Communist Manifesto’ in which he indicated that economic equality could only be achieved after a violent revolution. • Marx believed that the working people, or proletariat, would take power from their capitalist masters. He advocated uniting to overthrow private ownership.
Socialism • The socialists, also, believe in economic equality, but only if it can be achieved through voting. • The basic goal of socialism is a more equal distribution of wealth. Nationalization of major industries is used to achieve this goal. • Democratic socialist political parties can be found in most modern democratic states such as Britain, France, and Spain.
The Political Spectrum • Political beliefs on the right side of the line support tradition and resist change in society that they deem unnecessary. • The extreme right is associated with Fascism.
Fascism • Fascism as a political ideology began in Italy in 1922 with the regime of Benito Mussolini. • In Germany the National Socialist Party led by Hitler came to power in 1933. • This political philosophy stressed militarism, nationalism, and racial purity. These were seen as a means to protect traditional beliefs.
The Political Spectrum VII - Center to Right Wing Liberalism Fascism Conservatism
The Political Spectrum Conservatism Communism Socialism Fascism
The Political Spectrum Left Right Moderate Liberal Conservative Communism Fascism Center