Political Ideologies Unit 1 AP Government and Politics
Political Ideology • What we believe and why… • Political Ideology Definitions • A comprehensive, integrated set of views about government and politics • A coherent set of ideas of on how people should live together • A plan of action for applying these ideas
1. Our Ideology Comes from Our…Political Culture • Political Culture is the widely shared beliefs, values and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another. • Name some of the beliefs shared by most Americans….
Did you name these? • Liberty • Democracy • Political Equality • Individualism • Justice and the Rule of Law • Capitalism and Free Enterprise • Nationalism, optimism, and idealism • “The American Dream”
2. Our Ideology Comes from our… Political Socialization • Political Socialization: • The process by which we are taught and develop our individual and collective political beliefs • Name some factors that influence our Political Socialization…
Did you name these? • Family*** • Peers • Race and ethnic differences • Religious differences • Gender • Social and economic differences (SES) • Sectional/regional differences • Media influences • Age • Can be linked to Historical events (e.g., Pearl Harbor, Vietnam, Watergate, September 11 and War on Terror)
Basic Ideology Disagreements • Is Human Nature… • Naturally good, cooperative, even perfectible? • Inherently flawed, evil, dangerous? • Is the Individual more important than the Group? • Should we look out for number one? • Should we be concerned about our fellow humans?
Many people + Many opinions = Many viewpoints
Overview of PoliticalIdeologies I. Liberalism II. Conservatism III. Socialism IV. Communism V. Fascism VI. Populism VII. Libertarianism Raphael’s “The School of Athens”
I. Liberalism • Classical Liberalism • Desire for a free, open, tolerant society • Humans as rational and able to recognize and promote self-interest • Limited role of government. • “That government is best which governs least.” • Government was seen as the chief threat to liberty. • Theory of government to protect property rights. • Liberty and equality of opportunity John Stuart Mill
Basic Tenets of Classic Liberalism • Social conditions are the result of individual choices and actions • Societies work best when individuals are free to do as they wish without harming or violating rights of others
Modern Liberalism • New Deal helped to expand the role of government • Theory of government is to protect people’s well-being. • Need for a strong central government to “smooth out the rough edges of capitalism.” • Corporations seen as the chief threat to liberty. • Government role is to provide opportunity for all citizens • Favor using government to: • Reduce economic inequalities • Champion the rights of the disadvantaged • Tolerate a more diverse range of social behaviors • Finance social welfare programs with higher taxes on the rich
The New (?) Left • “Neo-liberals” • Late 20th century and 21st century • Believe that government certainly has some role to play, but not as big a role as desired by New Deal liberals. • Need to get back to more individualism and less reliance on big government. • Discrediting of liberalism in 1980’s and 1990’s: • A feeling that liberalism has “gone too far.” • Less likely to rely upon government as a solution to problems.
Neoliberalism • To help accomplish this, neoliberalism requires the removal of various controls deemed as barriers to free trade, such as: • Tariffs • Regulations • Certain standards, laws, legislation and regulatory measures • Restrictions on capital flows and investment
Neoliberalism • Neoliberalism in theory, is essentially about making trade between nations easier. • Neoliberal states guarantee, by force if necessary, the "proper functioning" of markets; where markets do not exist (for example, in the use of land, water, education, health care, social security, or environmental pollution), then the state should create them. • It is about freer movement of goods, resources and enterprises in a bid to always find cheaper resources, to maximize profits and efficiency.
II. Classic Conservatism • Learn from the past • Custom and tradition as ‘latent wisdom’ • Look to the past?? • Freedom and order • Focused on conserving existing social order • Organic or unrefined view of society • Belief in human imperfection • Acceptance of inequality Edmund Burke
Modern Conservatives • Generally … • distrust government • have greater faith in private enterprise and free markets • BUT…they are willing to use government to enforce traditional moral standards. • They favor a larger military and a more assertive pursuit of national self-interest. • Also advocate lower taxes to stimulate growth and to restrict the government’s capacity to finance social welfare programs.
Modern Conservatism • Reversal of the liberal trend of the 1930’s to look to government as the solution to our problems. • Emphasis today on the private sector to solve problems. • Resurgence since late 70’s: • Strength in the formerly “solid South.” • Reagan/Bush/GHW Bush • Republican control of the Senate 1980-86, 1994-2000, and 2002-2006. • Republican Congresses 104th, 105th, 106th, 108th, 109th, 112th House
The Extreme “New” Right • More extreme conservatives • Sometimes called Neo-Conservatives and the New Right • John Birch Society • Three types of Neo-Cons • Foreign policy neo-conservatives • Social policy neo-conservatives • Economic neo-conservatives
Neo Conservatives • Foreign policy neo-conservatives • Isolationists who want to defend the national interest and are wary of any “New World Order,” and are wary of international organizations like the • United Nations • World Trade Organization • International Monetary Fund • World Bank • NAFTA • Social policy neo-conservatives • Emphasize social issues like prayer in school, anti-abortion, anti-homosexuality. • Sometimes known as the “Religious Right.” • Economic neo-conservatives • Want to unleash market forces to attack various ills in society. • “If we just cut taxes and free up the free enterprise system everything will improve.
III. Socialism • The means of production are owned and controlled by all of society. • Belief that Economic Equality creates ‘True Equality’ • System in which means of production, distribution, and exchange are controlled by government. • Strong impact upon Western Europe. • Many Americans associate it with radicalism • Americans have a strong belief in individualism • Is this the Welfare State or the Perfect Society?
Socialism • How society should be run exactly and how it should be implemented or achieved is a matter of controversy • Marxism and communism are both branches of socialism. • In Marxist theory, it also refers to the society that would “succeed or supplant capitalism, and would later develop further into communism, as the necessity for the socialist structure would wither away • Robert Owen • British capitalist turned socialist who • Founded “socialist colony” in New Harmony, IN
IV. Communism • Communism refers to a “conjectured, future, classless, stateless, social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production” • The establishment of communism is viewed as the culmination of the class struggle between the capitalist class (the owners of capital) and the working class.
Communism Capitalism Feudalism Slave-based Empires Primitive Communism Karl Marx Marx’s Theory of Historical Progression Karl Marx Theory • The communist society Marx envisioned emerging from capitalism has never been implemented • It remains theoretical
Hitler and Mussolini V. Fascism • Belief that society should triumph overthe individual • Characteristics of Fascism • Hypernationalism/Racism • Nation/People as determining identity • Elitism • Rejection of Democracy • Militarism • Mussolini Slogan: • credere, obbediere, combattere (Believe, obey, fight)
VI. Populism • The “average Joe” or “Jane” • Can be traced back to politicians trying to connecting to the common people • Today’s Populism • Conservative on social issues • Strong on family issues and a slower pace • Pro-Life issues and Prayer in school • Liberal on economic issues • Watch out for the “little guy” and his wages • Stand up to “corporate America” • Corporations should be monitored and closely watched • Government regulations are necessary
VII. Libertarianism • Extreme emphasis on individual liberty. • Extreme cutback on role of government. • Look to Constitution and Bill of Rights • Liberal on social issues • Government should not be involved in social issues • No drug laws… • But…some pro-choice some pro-life • Conservative on economic issues • They essentially believe that government should only defend the nation. • Lower taxes • No public education • No need for much of bureaucracy