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Latin Grammar. Indirect Statement (Grammar 4A, pp. 201-03). Pep Talk. We are learning about indirect statement. At first it may seem hard, but eventually it will make sense. It’s really important in Latin; you can’t read Latin without understanding it. Direct and Indirect Statement.

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Latin grammar

Latin Grammar

Indirect Statement

(Grammar 4A, pp. 201-03)


Pep talk
Pep Talk

  • We are learning about indirect statement.

  • At first it may seem hard, but eventually it will make sense.

  • It’s really important in Latin; you can’t read Latin without understanding it.


Direct and indirect statement
Direct and Indirect Statement

  • Direct statement occurs when we report a statement as it was actually said:

    John said, “I’ll come at 3 p.m.”

  • Indirect statement occurs when we report a statement in a type of paraphrase:

    John said that he would come at 3 p.m.


Direct and indirect statement1
Direct and Indirect Statement

  • More examples:

    The farmer yelled, “I’m home!”

    The farmer yelled that he was home.

    Mary will say, “I don’t believe you.”

    Mary will say that she does not believe me.


Direct and indirect statement2
Direct and Indirect Statement

  • Latin uses direct statement less than English.

  • Latin prefers to use indirect statement.


English indirect statement
English Indirect Statement

  • English indirect statement typically begins with the word that.

    Bill said that John came.

  • But the that is optional and frequently English leaves that out.

    Bill said John came.


Indirect statement
Indirect Statement.

  • Indirect statement in Classical Latin is done differently from English indirect statement.

  • Latin does not use a word like that.


Indirect statement1
Indirect Statement.

  • Instead, Latin makes the subject of the indirect statement accusative and the verb an infinitive.

    Gaius says that Marcus loves Julia.

    Gaius dīcit Marcum Iūliam amāre.

    (Gaius says Marcus to love Julia)


Indirect statement2
Indirect Statement.

  • So, in Latin indirect statement,

    • there is no word for that;

    • the subject of the indirect statement is in the accusative;

    • the verb is an infinitive.


Indirect statement3
Indirect Statement.

  • Examples:

    Verrēs dīxit sacerdōtem mentīrī.

    Cicerō dīcit Verrem malum esse.

    sacerdōs nūntiauit Verrem simulācrum auferre.


Indirect statement4
Indirect Statement.

  • Many other verbs (believing, thinking, sensing) can take indirect statement.

    Verrēs crēdit sacerdōtem mentīrī.

    Cicerōarbitrātūrtē malum esse.

    sacerdōs uīdit Verrem simulācrum auferre.


Infinitives in indirect statement
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

  • We just learned about the three tenses of infinitives:

    • Present.

    • Perfect

    • Future.

  • All three tenses are used in indirect statement.


Infinitives in indirect statement1
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

  • This is important!!!

  • The three tenses of the infinitive indicate time relative to the main verb.

  • Let’s see some examples.


Infinitives in indirect statement2
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

  • The perfect infinitive indicates actions complete with respect to the main verb.

    Marcus dīcit Verrem aurum abstulisse.

    [= Marcus says Verrēs to have stolen the gold.]

    = Marcus says that Verres stole the gold.

    Marcus says that Verres has stolen the gold.

(perfect infinitive)

(main verb)


Infinitives in indirect statement3
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

  • The present infinitive indicates actions contemporary with the main verb.

    Marcus dīcit Verrem aurum auferre.

    [= Marcus says Verrēs to steal the gold.]

    = Marcus says that Verres steals the gold.

    Marcus says that Verres is stealing the gold.

(present infinitive)

(main verb)


Infinitives in indirect statement4
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

  • The future infinitive indicates actions after the main verb.

    Marcus dīcit Verrem aurum ablātūrum esse.

    [= Marcus says Verrēs to be going to steal the gold.]

    = Marcus says that Verres will steal the gold.

  • Note how the infinitive must agree with Verres.

(future infinitive)

(main verb)


Infinitives in indirect statement5
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

  • Let’s try that again but with a past tense main verb and deponent infinitives.


Infinitives in indirect statement6
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

Marcus crēdēbat Verrem mihi minārī.

[= Marcus believed Verrēs to threaten me.]

= Marcus believed that Verres was threatening me.

(main verb)

(present infinitive)


Infinitives in indirect statement7
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

(perfect infinitive)

(main verb)

Marcus crēdēbat Verrem mihi minātum esse.

[= Marcus believed Verrēs to have threatened me.]

= Marcus believed that Verres had threatened me.

  • Note how the infinitive must agree with Verres.


Infinitives in indirect statement8
Infinitives in Indirect Statement

Marcus crēdēbat Verrem mihi minātūrum esse.

[= Marcus believed Verrēs to be going to threaten me.]

= Marcus believed that Verres would threaten me.

(main verb)

(future infinitive)