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Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades
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  1. Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades IDENTIFICATIONS Capetians William the Conqueror Battle of Hastings (1066) Otto I Crusades • OUTLINE • Spread of Christianity • Rise of Nation States • France • England • Germany • Crusades

  2. Spread of Christianity

  3. France, 12th Century

  4. The Capetians(987-1328) Hugh Capet (Ruled: 987-996) In 987, permanent shift of the kingship from the Carolingians to the Capetians Hugh was determined to make the crown hereditary Had eldest son ‘associated’ to him, i.e. recognized as heir by noblity

  5. Emergence of England Achieves political unity much earlier than France 1066, crisis develops when Edward the Confessor dies Edward named Harold II (Godwinson) as his successor Rival is William, duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror, William I) Battle of Hastings (1066)

  6. William I (1066-1087) Centralized kingdom Placed Norman order upon England William was the first ruler to show how feudal principles could be used as the foundation for a strong, centralized monarchy

  7. Medieval Germany In contrast to England & France, local feudal lords retained significant power in Germany, which hindered attempts at achieving a unified nation-state

  8. Germany in the Middle Ages

  9. Germany, 12th century

  10. Medieval Germany • In contrast to England & France, local feudal lords retained significant power in Germany, which hindered attempts at achieving a unified nation-state • Otto I (912-973) • Refounded the Holy Roman Empire • 962 – Crowned Emperor • Salian Dynasty (est. 1024) • Henry III (r. 1039-56) imperial control over the Church is at its apex

  11. Clunaic Reforms and Medieval Society • Church Reform in the 11th and 12th centuries • Papacy of Innocent III • Impact of Emphasis on Spirituality: New Orders • High Medieval Society (ca.1000 – 1300)

  12. Church Reform in the 11th & 12th Centuries • Practices open to dispute • Investiture • Concubinage • Simony • The Monastery at Cluny (@ 910) • Papal Support: Leo IX and Nicholas II • Gregory VII (1073-1085), Henry IV (1056-1106) and the Investiture Struggle

  13. Spread of Islam (7th & 8th c.)

  14. First Crusade (1095-1099) Byzantine Empire under attack from Muslim Turks 1071 – Battle of Manzikert, Turks capture Jerusalem 1094 – Alexis I appealed to Pope Urban II for help 1095 – Urban II’ speech at Clermont 1096 – Peasants’ Crusade 1096 – Official crusade launched 1099 – Crusaders capture Jerusalem

  15. First Crusade (1096-99)

  16. Second Crusade (1147–49) 1147 – Muslims defeat Europeans at Edessa, which catalyzed the 2nd Crusade Preached by Bernard of Clarivaux Unmitigated disaster for the crusaders Crusades now included an expansionist mission in addition to a pilgrimage Origin of Military Orders: Templars, Hospitalers, Teutonic Knights

  17. Third Crusade (1188-1192) Muslim leader Saladin reconquers Egypt and most crusading states 1187 – Conquers Jerusalem, which precipitated the 3rd Crusade Byzantium makes a pact with Saladin Crusade disintegrated through lack of cooperation

  18. Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) Pope Innocent III organized crusade under papal auspices Crusaders never reached the Holy Land Diverted by Venetians Byzantium victim of the 4th Crusade Cause: dynastic intrigue & greed 1204, Crusaders sacked Constantinople

  19. Crusades