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  1. The Crusades In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: Pilgrim Crusades Students will also be able to explain one cause of the Crusades and one effect of the Crusades. E. Napp

  2. In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine. E. Napp

  3. Muslim Conquest • In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine. • Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed Jews and Christians to freely enter the Holy Land. • As time passed, some Muslim rulers were less tolerant. E. Napp

  4. Christians wanted to visit the land where Jesus was born. When a person travels for religious purposes, he is a pilgrim. E. Napp

  5. Rumors and Intolerance • As the years passed, reports spread that some Muslims had killed Christian pilgrims and destroyed churches. • European Christians were also increasingly intolerant of Muslims controlling the Holy Land. • As tensions increased, war seemed inevitable. E. Napp

  6. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for a crusade, or war, against the Muslims. E. Napp

  7. Pope Urban II • In 1095, Pope Urban II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, called for a crusade, or war, against the Muslims. • Ultimately, the Christians fought many crusades against the Muslims. • However, Christians never permanently regained control of the Holy Land. E. Napp

  8. For almost 200 years – from 1096 to 1291- European crusaders went to the Holy Land. E. Napp

  9. Many Europeans Joined the Crusades. Some joined for the promise of Heaven. Others joined hoping for wealth. E. Napp

  10. Crusaders • Crusaders were European Christians who heeded the Pope’s call to regain the Holy Land. • Crusaders joined for many reasons. • Some joined for the promise of Heaven, others for wealth, and still others for adventure. E. Napp

  11. Crusaders often wore a cross on their breastplate. E. Napp

  12. The Effects of the Crusades • Historians frequently call the Crusades “a successful failure.” • While Europeans never regained permanent control of the Holy Land and many people were killed, cultural diffusion increased. • Europeans began to trade with the Middle East. E. Napp

  13. Europeans learned about Arab art, architecture, medicine, and mathematics. E. Napp

  14. Questions for Reflection: • Why were Christians upset that Muslims had gained control of the Holy Land? • Define pilgrim. • What is a crusade? • Why did the Pope call for a Crusade? • Why do historians call the Crusades “a successful failure”? • What was an effect of the Crusades? E. Napp