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GOAL # 2. How did the forces of nationalism, sectionalism, and expansion impact the United States (1801-1850)?. Nationalism is……. The desire for political independence. Patriotism: proud loyalty and devotion to a nation

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goal 2

GOAL # 2

How did the forces of nationalism, sectionalism, and expansion impact the United States (1801-1850)?


The desire for political independence.

  • Patriotism: proud loyalty and devotion to a nation
  • Excessive or fanatical devotion to a nation and its interests, often associated with the belief that one country is superior to all other nations.
how did the forces of nationalism impact the united states 1801 1850
How did the forces of nationalism impact the United States (1801-1850)?
  • James Monroe’s “Era of Good Feelings”

post War of 1812

  • widespread nationalism, victory against British
  • no political division, only one party, Democratic-Republican party
  • Democratic-Republican leaders see need for stronger federal government

National Bank

  • Protective Tariffs
  • Infrastructure improvements (roads and canals)

Democratic-Republicans opposed to First National Bank did not re-charter it in 1811

  • Financial problems
    • State and private banks expanded lending issued own bank notes
    • Interest rates increased during War of 1812, federal government borrowed more
    • No regulatory action by government to stop practices

John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster support passage of the bill to create the Second National Bank in 1816

  • The Bank had power to issue notes that became national currency
  • The Bank could regulate state banks
the panic of 1819
The Panic of 1819
  • State banks closed
  • The property of farmers in the West who could not pay mortgages was seized by the Second National Bank

Embargo of goods during War of 1812 allowed US manufacturing to grow

  • War over, US manufacturers had to compete with cheap goods from Britain
  • Protective tariff
  • Opposed by New England shippers and Southern planters

Madison vetoed bill for federal internal improvement plan.

  • The Constitution did not expressly authorize the federal spending on road and canal construction.
nationalism and the judicial branch
Nationalism and the Judicial Branch
  • Chief Justice John Marshall

Virginia law that banned the inheritance of land by an enemy ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

  • Virginia law in conflict with the Treaty of Paris, 1783, which required states to restore land taken from the loyalists.
  • The decision established that the Supreme Court was the court of final appeals.

The decision of the Supreme Court was that the federal government was supreme, no state government could interfere with an agency of the federal government.

  • Taxation of the National Bank by the state of Maryland was a form of interference, therefore, unconstitutional

Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had the power to regulate interstate trade.

  • States had the power to regulate trade within the state.
  • The decision was written so that commerce included anything that crossed state borders.
problems with spanish florida
Problems with Spanish Florida
  • General Andrew Jackson
  • Sec. of State John Q. Adams

In the early 1800s, runaway slaves went to Spanish Florida.

  • The Seminole Indians used Florida as a base to raid American settlements in Georgia
  • The Spanish not able to control the border
  • Sec. of War John C. Calhoun sent Gen. Andrew Jackson into Florida to stop the Seminole raids.

Jackson burnt several villages, seized the Spanish settlements of St. Marks and Pensacola, and removed the Spanish governor from power.

  • The Spanish government demanded Jackson be punished.
  • Sec. of State John Q. Adams defended Jackson’s actions, the cause of the problem was the inability of the Spanish to keep order.

Sec. of State Adams used the events in Florida to pressure Spanish to negotiate the border between the US and Florida.

  • Spain gave Florida to the United States and finalized the western border of the Louisiana Territory.

Monroe Doctrine declared that the Americas were no longer open to any new European colonization.

  • US could not really back up the Monroe Doctrine if challenged.
  • Monroe Doctrine set up lasting policy of America stopping European influence in Latin American political affairs

Monroe Doctrine followed President Washington’s guidelines of avoiding entangling alliances in European power struggles.


The Erie Canal was completed in 1825.

  • The Erie Canal connected Buffalo and Albany, NY.
  • The Erie Canal connected Lake Erie and the Hudson River.

Congress funded the construction of the National Road in 1806.

  • The National Road started in Cumberland, Md.
  • The road reached Wheeling, Va. by 1818.
  • Livestock and produced traveled east and migrating settlers travelled west in Conestoga wagons.

River travel was faster, cheaper, and more efficient.

  • Barges could hold more coal and grain.
  • Loaded barge only travel downstream
  • 1807, Fulton and Livingston, steamship Clermont, steamed up the Hudson River 150 miles from NY City to Albany in 32 hours
  • Steamboats made travel reliable, could travel longer distances in either direction.

Peter Cooper built American engine on British design

  • 1830, Cooper’s Tom Thumb pulled first passenger train
  • Travelled at 10 mph for 13 miles, Baltimore to Ellicot City, Maryland
  • Trains were faster than stagecoach or wagon
  • Cold travel inland where steamboats could not
factors that allowed industrialization
Factors that allowed industrialization
  • Free enterprise: people are free to start and own businesses with little government intervention
  • People could own and acquire capital
  • Very little government control
  • Low tax rates= money to invest
  • 1830s, states pass general incorporation laws, become a corporation, issue and sell stock without a charter

Laws also limited liability, investor buys stock, business fails, investor only loses investment, not responsible for debts of the business

  • Industrialization started in the Northeast, fast streams, region had many entreprenuers/merchants with capital to invest in British technology

English textile worker, moved to Rhode Island in 1789

  • Built British water frame from memory
  • Water frame used to stretch spun raw cotton fiber into cotton thread

Opened several mills in Northeastern Massachusetts, 1814

  • Mass production of cotton cloth
  • Boston Manufacturing Co. built homes for workers in factory town, Lowell
  • Hired thousands of women and children, worked for lower wages than men
  • Complete process to make cotton cloth under one roof
  • Thought to signal the beginning of the industrial revolution
  • By 1840, many textile mills in the Northeast, industrialists used factory techniques to produce lumber, shoes, leather, and wagons

Invention- a new process or a new product

  • Innovation-an improvement of an existing product or process

New England inventor/tutor

  • Worked to refine the process of gun making to the factory model
  • Machines produced large quantities of identical pieces that workers assembled into finished guns

1832, worked on telegraph, developed Morse code to send messages

  • 1844, first long range message sent on telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore
  • Journalists used telegraph to send messages quickly
  • 1848, group of newspapers pool resources to collect and share news over the wires, Associated Press (AP)

Industrialization brought thousands from farms and small towns to the cities for factory jobs and wages

  • City populations doubled and then tripled
  • 1820, one city with a population over 100,000
  • By 1860, eight cities with a population over 100,000

Printers and publishers to keep public informed

  • Literacy rate high- by 1840 75% of the total population and 90% of the white population
  • Publishing grew to meet demand for reading material
  • Early writers often women, Sarah Buell Hale, Lydia Howard, Huntley Sigourney

To improve conditions workers formed unions

  • 1820-1830, 300,000 workers were a member of some type of union
  • Most were local unions, focused on single trade, printing , or shoemaking
  • Unions worked independently of each other
  • Wanted higher wages, 10-hour work day
  • Little success, employers refused to recognize or bargain with unions

Courts ruled against unions as unlawful groups that limited free enterprise

  • Unions had little power or money to support strikes to achieve goals
  • Some gains by 1840, President Martin Van Buren repaid unions for support by reducing federal work day to 10 hours
  • 1842, Commonwealth vs. Hunt, Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled union strikes legal

Agriculture still main economic activity in the early 1800s

  • Until late 1800s, farming employed more workers than the factories, produced more wealth
  • Northern farmers produced surplus crops to sell in eastern cities
  • Profits used to buy machinery and other goods

Fed the growing urban populations

  • Helped the economy grow
  • 1800s, the North had over 1 million farms
  • Long work days, raised livestock, corn, wheat, and other grains
  • Farming more important in the South
  • The South had few cities or factories
  • North concentrating on manufacturing and the south on agriculture and slavery

1815-1860, over 5 million immigrants

  • Came to America to escape violence, political turmoil, starvation, and poverty
  • Many got a fresh start and opportunity
  • Many also victims of discrimination
  • Largest group from Ireland because of potato famine
  • No money, no skills, stayed in cities of the Northeast, unskilled labor or servants

Second largest group of immigrants were from Germany, by 1860 numbered 1.5 million

  • Most had money to move past cities in the east and settle in the mid-west
  • They became farmers or businessmen
  • Enjoyed freedom and liberty in America

New people with new cultures languages, and religions brought about feelings of hostility towards foreigners.

  • 1800s large group of anti-Catholics in America
  • Ministers preached anti-Catholic sermons
  • Millions of Irish and German immigrants were Catholic
  • Several nativist groups formed

Pledged to never vote for a Catholic candidate

  • Pushed for laws to ban immigrants and Catholics from holding public office
  • 1854 formed the American Party
  • Membership was secret
  • Became known as the Know-Nothings

The end of 1700s religious leaders felt commitment to organized religion weakening

  • The growth of scientific knowledge and rationalism challenged religious faith
  • 1800s religious leaders organize to revive America’s commitment to faith
  • Started in rural Kentucky, spread across the nation

Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians held camp meetings

  • Camp meetings attended by thousands, lasted days with song, prayer, and outbursts of faith
  • Message: people must bring God back into their daily lives
  • Grace through faith

Most well known of the Second Great Awakening ministers

  • Each person contained within themselves the capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation
  • His camp meetings were planned and rehearsed
  • Founder of modern revivalism
  • Served as president of Oberlin College, first to admit women and African Americans, a center of social change
  • Finney warned against using politics to change society, change must come from Christian ideas that change people from within society, then society would change

The Unitarians broke from the New England Congregational Church

  • Rejected the idea that Jesus was the son of God, only a great teacher, believed that God is a unity not a trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
  • Broke from the New England Congregational Church
  • Belief in the universal salvation of souls
  • Rejected the concept of hell
  • God intends to save all

Founder Joseph Smith, preached Mormon ideas in western NY in 1830

  • Claimed he had been called to restore the Christian Church to its original form
  • Published the Book of Mormon, translation of words inscribed on golden tablets he had received from an angel
  • Foretold the coming of God, need to build kingdom on earth to receive him

Mormons were harassed in Ohio, Missouri

  • Moved to Commerce, Ill. spring 1839
  • Bought the town, built self-contained community
  • Prospered, by 1844 a population of 15,000
  • J. Smith murdered by locals in 1844
  • Brigham Young became the leader of the church, led Mormon migration to the Utah territory, established a permanent settlement, Salt Lake City, Utah

Early 1800s thinkers adopted romanticism

  • Romanticism was a movement that started in Europe in the 1800s
  • Advocated feeling over reason
  • Inner spirituality over external rules
  • Individual over society
  • Nature over environments created by humans

Transcendentalism was the most notable expression of American romanticism

  • People were urged to transcend the limits of their minds and let their souls reach out and embrace the beauty of the universe

The most influential transcendentalist writer

  • 1836 essay Nature, any who want fulfillment should strive for communion with the natural world
  • Emerson influenced other writers: Margaret Fuller and Henry David Thoreau
  • Emerson and Thoreau created original American works that celebrated the people, the history, and natural beauty of the United States

People must resist the pressure to conform

  • Went to live in the woods at Walden for one year to write

Wrote about the American west

  • Romanticized Native Americans and frontier settlers
  • Last of the Mohicans, 1826

Most well known work The Scarlet Letter,1850

  • about persecution and psychological suffering resulting from sin,
  • Set in Puritan New England

Most famous work, Moby Dick, 1851

  • Captain Ahab battles the great white whale
  • Man’s struggle against nature

Leaves of Grass, 1855

  • Most important poet of the era

American school for artists

  • American landscapes, illustrating the natural beauty of America

Early 1800s rise of mass newspaper

  • Prior to 1800s, weekly paper cost 6 cents catered to the wealthy
  • More Americans could read, publishers produced inexpensive papers, penny papers
  • Reported on fires, crimes, marriages, gossip, politics, local news,
  • Penny papers very successful

Specialized readership

  • 1830, Louis Godey, Godey’s Ladys Book, first magazine for women
  • James Russell Lowell, Atlantic Monthly, for the well educated
  • Harper’s Weekly, book reviews to news reports

The perfect society

  • People who built and lived in the communities felt society corrupted human nature
  • Form a separate society for a better life
  • Create own utopia
  • Cooperative living
  • No private property

A religious group

  • Small utopian communities Maine to Kentucky
  • Name from ritual shaking dance performed by members
  • Peak in mid 1800s, 6,000 members
  • Did not marry or have children
  • Only way to expand was to convert new members

John Humphrey Noyes founder

  • 1844 adopted communism
  • Communal living
  • Oneida, NY
  • Controversial view on marriage
  • Every man married to every woman and every woman married to every man
  • No attachment to each other

Founded by the Harmony Society, 1814-1824

  • Separatists from the German Lutheran Church
  • Led by Johann Georg Rapp
  • Strong work ethic, work, work, work, save, save, save
  • Great economic achievement
  • Rapid advance of wealth and prosperity

George Ripley, transcendentalist, April 1841

  • Individual freedom
  • Humane relationships
  • Harmony, merge values ideas, spiritual matters with physical events
  • Union of the mind, body, and spirit
  • Manual labor uplifting, every member required to participate in a few hours of physical labor daily

To improve something by removing faults.

  • To get rid of unacceptable habits.

Urged states to implement prison reform and create institutions for the mentally ill


Minister, “the nation’s citizens more than the government should take the lead in building a better society.”

  • Focused on spreading the word of God, converting nonbelievers, moved to fighting problems of society.

Young women played a prominent role in the reform movements of the era.

  • Unmarried women faced uncertain futures and found religion a foundation to build their lives upon.
  • As women joined the church they turned to religious based reform groups, addressing issues such as drinking, prisons, and education.
temperance movement
Temperance Movement
  • Carrie Nation

Reformers felt alcohol was one of society’s greatest evils.

  • Males spent money on drink that should be used to buy food and necessities.
  • Alcoholism was widespread in the 1800s.
  • In the west citizens drank to ease the effects of isolation and loneliness.
  • In the eastern cities drinking became a leisure activity.

Advocates of temperance ( moderation in the use of alcohol) had been active since 1700s.

  • Temperance groups across the nation preached the evils of alcohol, persuading heavy drinkers to give up liquor (Carrie Nation).
  • The American Temperance Union founded in 1833.
  • Maine in 1851 passed the prohibition law, followed by 12 other states by 1855, some states passed local option laws, the ability to prohibit alcohol sales within their borders.

Reformers looked to improve the nation’s prison system.

  • All criminals placed together in prison, violent offenders, debtors, and the mentally ill.
  • Facilities were substandard and inhumane.
  • 1816 states built new facilities and provided better environment for inmates.
  • Underlying principle in the reform movement was rehabilitation.

The first attempt was strict discipline to ride criminals of laxness that led them to crime.

  • Solitary confinement and silence on work crews gave prisoners time for meditation and reflection about their actions.
  • New facilities called penitentiaries, notion that individuals would work to achieve penitence or remorse.

1800s push for a system of public schools, that were government funded, and open to all children.

  • 1820-1830, increase in the number of voters and millions of immigrants, the public could see the need for public education.
  • Leaders and reformers felt in order for democracy to survive, there must be an educated electorate.

Horace Mann, member of the Massachusetts Legislature led the push for public education in Massachusetts.

  • Supported the bill that created the state board of education in 1837.
  • Served as the secretary of the Massachusetts State School Board.
  • Doubled teacher salaries

Opened 50 new schools

  • Massachusetts became the model for public education in the northern region.
  • 1852, Massachusetts passed the first compulsory school attendance law, NY followed the next year.
  • Common schools taught reading, arithmetic, and instilled a work ethic.

Common schools were open to all, funded by district taxes, state funds, and tuition paid by parents.

  • 1850s tax supported elementary schools in the northeast spread across the nation.
  • Rural areas were behind in public education, children needed to plant and harvest
  • Education movement in the south led by Calvin Wiley from N.C.

By 1860 2/3rds of NC white children attended school part of the year.

  • As a whole the southern region only 1/3rd of white children were enrolled in public schools by 1860.
  • For African American children education did not exist.

Educating voters usually meant males.

  • Women no right to vote in the 1800s.
  • Women used reform movement to create educational opportunities for women.
  • Emma Willard, girl’s boarding school in Vermont in 1814.
  • Mary Lyon, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in Massachusetts, 1837- first institution of higher learning for women.

Industrialization changed the economic roles of men and women.

  • 1700s, most economic activity took place in or near the home.
  • Mid 1800s, factories and work centers separated the home and the workplace.
  • Men left home to go to work, women tended the house and the children. This led to the first women’s movement.
true womanhood
True Womanhood
  • Women should be homemakers and developers of their children’s character.
  • Women were to be models of piety and virtue for children and husband.
  • Set of ideals became “true womanhood”
  • 1841, Catherine Beecher, A Treatise on Domestic Economy, women could find fulfillment at home, gave instruction on childcare, cooking, and health matters.

Active in the anti-slave movement

  • Helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention
elizabeth cady stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Active in the anti-slave movement
  • Organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention
  • Delivered the Declaration of Sentiments
  • “We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women are created equal”
  • Shocked those in attendance at the Seneca Falls Convention

A pioneer in the women’s suffrage movement

  • Helped organize the Women’s State Temperance Society of New York
  • During the Civil War organized the Women’s National League to promote emancipation
  • 1868, organized the Working Women’s Association of New York
  • Helped organize the National Woman Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Was arrested for voting in the presidential election of 1872 in Rochester, NY

  • Served as the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association 1892-1900

Convention for women’s rights organizers in up state New York

  • Organized by Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony
  • Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions