Crusades • The Crusades were expeditions undertaken, in fulfillment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny.
Crusades • The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. Medieval writers use the terms crux. Since the Middle Ages the meaning of the word crusade has been extended to include all wars undertaken in pursuance of a vow, and directed against infidels, i.e. against Mohammedans, pagans, heretics, or those under the ban of excommunication. The wars waged by the Spaniards against the Moors constituted a continual crusade from the eleventh to the sixteenth century; in the north of Europe crusades were organized against the Prussians and Lithuanians; the extermination of the Albigensian heresy was due to a crusade, and, in the thirteenth century the popes preached crusades against John Lackland and Frederick II. But modern literature has abused the word by applying it to all wars of a religious character, as, for instance, the expedition of Heraclius against the Persians in the seventh century and the conquest of Saxony by Charlemagne
Crusades • The idea of the crusade corresponds to a political conception which was realized in Christendom only from the eleventh to the fifteenth century; this supposes a union of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the popes. All crusades were announced by preaching. After pronouncing a solemn vow, each warrior received a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a soldier of the Church. Crusaders were also granted indulgences and temporal privileges, such as exemption from civil jurisdiction, inviolability of persons or lands, etc. Of all these wars undertaken in the name of Christendom, the most important were the Eastern Crusades, which are the only ones treated in this article. • DIVISION • It has been customary to describe the Crusades as eight in number: • the first, 1095-1101; • the second, headed by Louis VII, 1145-47; • the third, conducted by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 1188-92; • the fourth, during which Constantinople was taken, 1204; • the fifth, which included the conquest of Damietta, 1217; • the sixth, in which Frederick II took part (1228-29); also Thibaud de Champagne and Richard of Cornwall (1239); • the seventh, led by St. Louis, 1249-52; • the eighth, also under St. Louis, 1270.
Crusade – latin “Crux” meaning Cross • 7th Century (Jerusalem) Umar • 11th C. Hakim persecutes Christians, despoils Holy Sepulcher • Egyptians lose control in 1071 • Seljuk Turks take over
Reasons • Persecution • Threat to Byzantine Empire • Motives @ 1st to fight Evil • Material Motives quickly enter • (wealth, penance, status, etc.)
Peter the Hermit • (1050 – 1131) • Led the Popular Crusade - 1096 • “Monk” turned crusader • Walter the Penniless (sidekick)
Left prior to main crusading force with 20,000 followers. • Pillaged churches and houses on the way to Constantinople. • Byzantine Emperor Alexius sends the peasant army to Anatolia. • They move towards Asia Minor under the leadership of Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless. • Peasant Crusaders besieged at Xerigordon and forced to surrender • Prisoners given the choice or beheading or conversion. • Those who convert are sent into slavery never to be heard from again.
"Lythe and listin, gentilmen,That be of frebore blode;I shall you tel of a gode yeman,His name was Robyn Hode."-A Gest of Robyn Hode
http://www.geocities.com/mrs_goddard/videomusic.html MYTH MAN VS.
WEAPONS & SWORDS
ARMOR & BODYWEAR
In response to the announcement by Pope Urban II of a Crusade to the Holy Land in 1095, Christian forces from western Europe converged on Constantinople, where they united with Byzantine forces to attack Seljuk armies in Anatolia and Muslim armies in Syria and Palestine. By 1099 the Crusaders had achieved their goal—the capture of the city of Jerusalem. However, Christian territories acquired during the First Crusade were gradually lost over the next 200 years. Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslim forces in 1187, and the last Christian stonghold in the Holy Land fell in 1291.
The western European Christian armies of the First Crusade surrounded the city of Jerusalem in June 1099. In mid-July, after a long siege, the Crusaders took the city by storm and massacred many of its inhabitants.
Leaders • Conrad III- German, Holy Roman Emperor Lead Troops With Louis • Pope Eugenius III- Pope • St. Bernard- Influenced start of Crusade • King Louis VII- French Lead Troops • Baldwin III- King of Jerusalem
Reasons • Edessa was taken by Muslims • Came as a shock • Fight Muslims in Spain • St. Bernard stated that crusade was more than to gain back Holy Land Response? • Many simple pilgrims joined the forces • Few trained soldiers
King Louis VII • Louis the Young • King of France • Overall leader of Crusade
Conrad III • Holy Roman Emperor • Military Experience • Needed convincing to go • Never crowned by Pope
St. Bernard of Clairvaux • Advocate for Crusade • Claimed that fighting was not just for church but for salvation as well • Convinced Conrad III to fight
Muslims • Imad Ad-Din Zengi captured Edessa, sparking the 2nd crusade • Saracens destroy the Germans • Nur ed-din added lands to Muslim state • Saladin came after crusade
Battle for Edessa • Originally taken by Christians in 1098 • Had been weakened by several Muslim attacks • Christians knew it was soon to go • Muslims finally succeed on Christmas Eve 1144
German Army • Almost completely destroyed when crossing plains of Anatolia(May 1146) • Remnants of Army arrives in Constantinople(Dec. 1146) • Travel through Hungry, stealing (June 1147) • Stop at Dorylaedum to rest, and are destroyed (Oct. 1147) • Rest of the Germans are massacred by the Turks(Feb. 1148). French Army • Again, mismanaged and dumb • Many killed just on the way to the Holy Land/Edessa • Some by land some by sea, land troops almost all killed
Damascus • Main goal of Crusaders • All troops set to meet there • Germans mostly dead • French infantry cut down • All three leaders disorganized/too proud
Accomplishments & Aftermath • Basically none • Small parts of Spain/Italian Islands • Showed how strong Muslims were • Showed how unified leaders can work together • Christians thought twice about fighting • Knew Muslims strengths • The siege of Damascus is done after one week • Saladin comes into power in Muslim world
A grim scene of Richard Coeur de Lion massacring his Saracen hostages in the Holy Land. From his balcony, Richard complacently observes the gruesome spectacle. Headless corpses are piled up beneath a platform on which two blindfolded men are about to be beheaded. Others await their turn, while soldiers lead the next victims to the ladder
Saladin was a Muslim ruler in the 12th century, during the time Europeans led Crusaders to the Middle East. Saladin fought the Crusaders several times, and recaptured Jerusalem for Muslims in 1187. This portrait of Saladin is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. Movie Movie2 Movie3(saladin)