Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s
Totalitarianism • Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state(political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of Dictatorship • Few Individual freedoms • Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) • Strict controls and laws • Military state (secret police, army, military) • Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) • Propaganda (State controlled media – radio, newspapers, posters) • One leader (dictator); charismatic • Total conformity of people to ideas and leader • Terror and Fear
Who Would You Vote For? Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
Who Did You Vote For? Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Contestant #1
What was Hitler’s Early Life Like • Born to Alois and Klara Hitler in Austria. • Mother dies - Hitler blames her Jewish doctor for her death. • Wanted to be an artist – not accepted into the Vienna Academy of Art • Paternal Grandfather - Jewish
Hitlers failure in Art school in Vienna • Couldn’t paint/draw faces. Is this a pretty good indicator that he had issues ? • What group of people would you guess ran the art schools that wouldn’t admit Hitler ?
How did WWI Influence Hitler? • He served in German Army: • wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery. • First success in his life –Made him love military • Blamed Germany’s defeat on Jews, Communists, and “November Criminals” - signers of TOV
Why did Hitler Join the German Workers Party? • Army Sent Hitler to investigate in 1919. • Gave a speech denouncing the TOV, Jews and Communists • Asked to Join
The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans
What is the NAZI Party? • German Workers Party changed to National Socialist German Workers Party - “NAZI” Party • Fascist beliefs • Drafted a platform of 25 points • Swastika – ancient symbol meaning good luck
What was the Beer Hall Putsch? • October 30, 1923 • Failed NAZI Party Revolution- Hitler imprisoned • While there he writes a book
What is Mein Kampf? • “Mein Kampf” = “My Struggle” • Blueprint for Germany’s future • Racism - hatred for Jews Scapegoat for • Germanys problems 2. Lebensraum(living space) expansion of Germany’s border 3. World Domination
What Problems did Germany’s government have after WWI? • Weimar Republic– democracy established after WWI • Faced Political opposition from • communist • fascists
What economic problems did the Weimar Republic have after WWI? • Reparations – repayments for war damages to Allies • Caused: • High Unemployment • Starvation • Desperation….
What is Hyperinflation? US German • Jan 1918 $1 = $5.21 • Jan 1922 $1 = $191.81 • Jan 1923 $1 = $17, 972 • Dec 1923 $1 = $4.2 T Hyperinflation - soaring inflation (increase in prices due to too much money and too few goods)
What did Hitler offer to the German people? • Promises, Promises • Nationalists - Restore Germany to Greatness • Wealthy Industrialist – stop communism • Workers – end unemployment • Blamed Others for Germany’s Problems • Jews • November Criminals • Weimar Republic • Great speaker
Abolish the Treaty of Versailles! 100,000 • German Army limited to • Germany had to pay reparations to allies • Accept war guilt • Germany lost % of its territories and colonies • The Rhineland was demilitarised • Anschluss (union) with Austria was forbidden • Germans were forced to live in Czechoslavakia (the Sudentenland) and Poland (including Danzig) 6.6 Billion 13 Thought that the Treaty of Versailles was unjust and humiliating
How does Hitler become Chancellor? • “Brownshirts”– Hitler’s private army • used fear tactics to eliminate opposition • Used speeches and propaganda to gain support • Nazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature): • 1930 = 18% of vote • 1932 = 37% of vote • Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933
How did Hitler Gain Total Power? • “Reichstag fire” Set by Nazi’s - blamed on communists -Hitler vowed to fight them • Ended democracy in Germany
What actions did Hitler take as Der Furher – The Leader? • Ignored the TOV • Rebuilt Army & Opened Weapons Factories • Stopped reparations payments • Economy improved • New Jobs - military sector • Decreased unemployment • Eliminated political opposition • Began planning for expansion of the Third Reich (Third Empire)
What was the Jewish Problem? • Hitler’s belief that Aryan German’s were the “Master Race” – blond hair, blue eyes, strong and disciplined • Blamed Germany’s problems on the Jewish • Racism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans.
“The Eternal Jew”Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violenceagainst the Jewish community. This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.
NAZI PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE DISABLEDThis frame from a filmstrip shows that the money needed to support a person with a hereditary disease can support an entire family of healthy Germans for the same amount of time.
January 1933 – Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor (Primeminister) of Germany A strong leader declared to the German people that he would restore German pride, rebuild their shattered country and have vengeance for the Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler was lionized as “der Fuehrer”, and the 3rd Reichborn • His pol. popularity grew b/c of ongoing propaganda, eco. growth (autobahn), foreign policy “successes”…
a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc. Nuremberg Rallies • Goebbels, as Min. of Truth and Enlightenment, created the “Big Lie” • Unacceptable ideas were stamped out – the “Burning of the Books”(Censorship) D-1
What actions did Hitler take to solve the “Jewish Problem” • 1935 Nuremburg Laws • Stipped Jews of Citizenship • Can’t Hold Public Office • Barred From Schools • Boycott Jewish Businesses • Banned non-Jews from marriage to Jews • 1938 Kristallnacht • Jews attacked on streets • Jewish businesses vandalized • Burned Synagogues • Many Jews shot or sent to prison camps D-2,3
Formative 1. • Name and explain three ways Hitler gained control of Germany • Name 3 problems Germany had after WWI
Nazism • I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945. • What is Nazism? • extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian • based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” • belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe • Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
1938 Time Man of the Year D-4 What do you think America thought of him ?
Hitler’s rise from corporal to Fuhrer was remarkable Sixteen years (1917-1933) separate these two pictures Hitler’s rise is unprecedented in history From defeated and demoralized corporal to one of the most powerful men on the planet Key Question: How far was Hitler responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War? From foot-soldier to Führer 5
Lebensraum • Germany's future, Hitler declared, entirely depended on meeting its need for more Lebensraum -living space; the German nation had a right to a larger share of land. The question was where the space could be acquired "atthe lowest cost." The answer lay not in overseas colonies but in Europe itself, "in immediate proximity to the Reich." • Hitler’s ‘Greater Germany’ would have a population of over 85 million • Germany’s land would be insufficent to feed this many people • Hitler intended to expand Eastwards towards Poland and Russia. Russians and Poles were Slavs – Hitler believed them to be inferior and so Germany was entitled to take their land. 6
WAR! Hitler’s Actions: Timeline
1933: 1000s of unemployed drafted into army Reduced unemployment & built military Claimed only reason to rearm was because other nations had not disarmed Withdrew from L of N (Like Japan earlier) 1934: L of N disarmament conference fails L of N members not willing to disarm Members used military to reduce unemployment, not willing to change 1935: Massive ‘Proclamation of Freedom to Rearm Rally’ 8 Rearmament
1936: H reintroduces conscription Rearmament popular w/ Germans Nazi support increased dramatically Pride restored to nation Humiliation of T of V partially erased Britain helped dismantle Versailles 1935: signed agreement allowing (G) a navy 35% as large of (E) navy (violation!!!) (E) believed restrictions on (G) in T of V too strict, (G) not able to defend itself (E) feared Central Europe was too weak to face growing Soviet power (France) really hacked off, but what could they do? Rearmament 9
(950,000) (8,250) (95) (30) (100,000) (36) German armed forces in 1932 and 1939 1932 1932 1932 1939 1939 1939 Warships Aircraft Soldiers • Fill out the first row of your ‘Versailles Chart’ • What factors allowed Hitler to get away with rearming Germany?
Reasons and Reactions No Action taken 13 He needed larger armies to protect Germany, and large armies also provided jobs and solved unemployment problems caused by The Great Depression. Britain sympathized with Germany, believing that the Treaty of Versailles had been too unfair on them. They also believed that a strong Germany would act as a barrier against Communism. The French were angry with Britain, but there was little they could do.
IVIL WAR IN SPAIN 14 E-OCCUPATION OF THE RHINELAND NSCHLUSS WITH AUSTRIA UDENTENLAND CRISIS CRASHING ITLER TAKES OVER REST OF CZECHOSLAVAKIA TALY AND GERMANY FORM PACT AZI-SOVIET PACT ERMANY INVADE POLAND
C 1936: Civil War! Republican government & Pro-government Communist forces fought right-wing (Fascist) rebels General Francisco Franco Hitler saw war as opportunity to fight communism & give troops combat experience 1937: Guernica! (G) ‘Condor Legion’ (Luftwaffe) purposely targeted civilians to demoralize enemy League of Nations looked on w/o interfering E-1,2 The Spanish Civil War
Rhineland a key industrial region Coal, steel, iron center (needed for rearmament) March 1936: Hitler’s first major risk Ordered troops moved into Rhineland Direct violation of T of V Direct violation of Locarno Treaties (1925) If Allies responded H would be humiliated Probable loss of power / military coup Why did Hitler do it? (France) & (Russia) just signed mutual defense pact Hitler claimed (G) was under threat from (Fra) & (Rus) H knew (England) felt T of V too harsh (England) would probably not intervene Remilitarization of the Rhineland R E-3,4,5
Reasons and Reactions 6 France was going through an internal political crisis at the time and there was no political leadership to concentrate against Nazi Germany. Britain generally supported the view that Nazi Germany was only going into her own "backyard" and that this section of Versailles did not need to be enforced in the mid-1930’s. It was believed that Germany was behaving in a reasonable and understandable manner. France and Russia had made a treaty to protect each other from Germany. Hitler said that he should be allowed to place troops on his own frontier. Hitler got away with it!