Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation Life in the New Nation 1783-1850
Cultural, Social, and Religious life in America Chapter 7: Section 1 In the early 1800’s the culture, religion, and social practices of Americans adapted to meet the challenges of a new and growing nation. By: Carly Norris, Christina Norwood, and ?
Cultural Advancements • American Scholars and Artists • Education • Republican Virtues By: Carly Norris, Christina Norwood, and ? ?
American Scholars and Artists Their goal was to improve the lives of all Americans. The reason that the scholars emerged was because of increased prosperity.
Benjamin Banneker From: Maryland Worked as a writer, inventor, mathematician, and astronomer. Mapped out Washington DC. Published the first issue of the Almanac detailing the motions of the moon, sun, planets and stars. Mercy Otis Warren From: Plymouth, Massachusetts She wrote several patriotic plays encouraging the cause of independence. Wrote a book called The History of the American Revolution Charles Wilson From: Pennsylvania Artist who painted more than 1000 portraits in his life. Served as a soldier in the Revolution. Founded the first major museum in the new nation. Benjamin Rush From: Pennsylvania He was a doctor, scientist, and a revolutionary who signed the Declaration of Independence, published numerous books on chemistry and medicine. Phillis Wheatley From: Sengal, West Africa Wrote poems called Poems on various subjects, religious and moral. Was a slave and was lucky that she was allowed to read and write.
Education • American began to see/believe that children's education as means of developing a rich an uniquely American culture. • American Spelling Book: Written by Noah Webster, and first appeared in 1783. The book was like a major dictionary, practically developing standards for the natural language. Webster also backed up this call by creating the American Dictionary of the English Language. • 1789, Massachusetts legislature made teachers present in class the “principles of piety, justice, and a sacred regard to truth, love to their country…chastity, moderation, and temperance.” and any other things that regarded the Republican Constitution.
Republican Virtues • The virtues that the American people would need to govern themselves were called Republican Virtues. • This included self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony, and sacrificing individual needs for the good of the community. • They looked to women for these virtues because of their roles of wives, mothers, and teachers. Because of this, women began attending schools to learn how to be “republican women.”
Growth Population Chapter 7 By: Kat St.George Section 1 – Social Changes
Population Growth • About 2.7 million people lived in the original 13 states in 1780 • By 1830 the population grew to about 12 million people in 24 states • From 1780-1830 the population doubled every 20 years
Children • About 90% of the population growth came from the amount of children born in each family • In the 1800s, the average woman had 5 kids • During the early 1800s about 130 of every 1,000 children died before their 1st birthday • Today the rate is only 7 deaths per 1,000 births
Median Age • The median age in 1820 was 17 • Today the median age is 35
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes • Mobility • Don’t know who did this section….
social changes SECTION 1: New Rules for Courtship and Marriage Katie Chapman
Women & Marriage • One of the few decision women had some control over was her choice of marriage partner. • Marriage had become a matter of survival because there were few job opportunities for women. • Women learned how to judge a potential mate by reading books.
Courtship in the 1800’s Courtship: A long period of getting acquainted with suitors before committing themselves to marry. In this time period, women were becoming more cautious about marriage. They waited a long time to get to know their future husband. In the time period of courtship, couples often wrote love letters to each other. Whether true love or not, courtship lead to the marriages that were building the new nation.
Country Wedding (1814). The painting pokes fun at young love and newly married couples.
Chapter 7 section 1Religious Renewal The Second Great Awakening By: Kayla Burgess
Powerful religious movement in the early 1800’s Began in Kentucky and Tennessee Evangelical movement affection Protestant Christians Stressed the importance of the Congregation (members), rather then ministers Also the revival brought back people to a religious life and accepting belief in Jesus This created several new denominations
Christian Bible, known as the Script is the finial authority Salvation can be achieved only through personal belief in Jesus People demonstrate true faith called “witnessing for Christ” Three ideas:
Chapter 7 Section 1Religious Renewal New Denominations By: Grace Long
During the Second Great Awakening several Protestant denominations (religious subgroups) experienced rapid growth.
The United States soon had more different Christian denominations than any other nation. The new denominations included the following: Baptists Methodists Unitarians Mormons Millennialists
Ch. 7, Section 1- Religious Renewal: African American Worship Tyler Bishop A4 African American preacher, Juliann Jane Tillman
African American Worship • Like white Americans, many African Americans turned to evangelical religion • They found a strong sense of community in Methodism and other Protestant denominations • As African Americans joined Christian churches, black and white traditions blended together. • African Americans focused mainly on themes that held a double meaning. • Believed that most important feature of a person was the content of their character.
African American Worship Cont. • African Americans sometimes felt unwelcome in white-dominated churches. • Tensions between whites and African Americans increased as African Americans became more assertive about sharing in democratic liberty. • They then created their own church called the African Methodist Episcopal Church, consisting of 86 churches and 8,000 members. • Elected Richard Allen, who was a leader in the creation of the AME, as bishop of the church. • The democratic nature of the Second Great Awakening had attracted many African Americans to the churches of evangelical denominations. The evangelical churches were not able to establish real equality for African Americans.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Trails to the West In the early years of the republic, many people traveled west over the Appalachians to settle in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Later, settlers would cross the continent to the Great Salt Lake and Pacific Coast.
Ch. 7, Section 2 – crossing the Appalachians By Eli William -The biggest reason for expansion westward across the Appalachians was because it was getting to over populated!! (people wanted elbow room!!!!) -The are they were trying to reach was called The Trans-Appalachia
The way they made it across the trans Appalachia was through main roads and water ways. The main roads consisted of Mohawk trail as well as the Great Valley and Richmond Road. • Most of the population settled in the Ohio river valley
Ch7, Section2- Crossing the Appalachians Settling in the Wilderness Alex Dandridge
Trans- Appalachia • People from many different backgrounds (religions and ethnic groups) settled in the areas west of the Appalachian Mountains. This area became known as Trans-Appalachia. In 1792 nearly 75000 settlers had settled in Trans-Appalachia. When people left to settle in the west, the whole family went together. Once people had reached their destination out west, they had no work. They were forced to plant crops, clear trees, and build log cabins for themselves. Below is a route that took settlers to the west through the Cumberland Gap, which became the main route to the western regions.
Daniel Boone • Daniel Boone became a legend. He had hunted in Kentucky as early as 1767 and survived a clash with a band of Cherokee Indians in 1773. Boone was hired by the Transylvania Company, to cut a road in the wilderness through the Cumberland gap. This road enabled people to pass through the gap.
Northwest Ordinance • 9800 slaves had moved west with their owners. The Northwest-Ordinance of 1787 stated that there would be no slavery in the areas north of the Ohio River. This included places like Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan.
Ch 7, Section 2 – Crossing the Appalachians Forcing Native Americans West By: Chase Steele
The Details • Americans wanted land real bad. So they crossed the Apps. And tried to make Indian’s leave there territory for free land. • Cities and towns became overpopulated, needed more farm land. • The U.S. gov’t pressured tribes to move west. • The gov’t saw this land as perfect reservation land in the Louisiana Terr. • But the land was thought to be un-farmable.
More Details • Federal Agents would bribe some tribe leaders. • Most of the tribes moved in the res. • Many died from foreign diseases, starvation, and many epidemics. • The Indian population decreased by a lot!!
Chapter 7, Section 2 Expanding into Florida Spanish Occupation In 1795 the United States and Spain agreed to the Pinckney Treaty. Named after Thomas Pinckney, Who arranged it. It stated that 1) The southern boundary of the United States was set at 31 degrees N latitude, leaving Florida firmly in Spanish hands.
Ch 7 Section 2- Continued • United states citizens would be allowed free use to the Mississippi river through Spanish territory. • They both agreed to control the Native Americans within their borders to prevent them from attacking. • Socha – What happen with the Seminole and Andrew Jackson?
In March 1818 General Jackson led 2000 men to burn & capture Spanish towns of Seminole Indians. Eventually they captured western Florida. Spain was not happy when America wouldn’t apologize and give the land back. Spain eventually agreed to give the remainder of Florida if America gave them parts of Texas, creating a new border between U.S. and Spanish territories. This resolution was called the Adams- Onis Treaty.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific • The Oregon Country
Bound for the Pacific The Oregon Country Emily Deaton
Fur Trade • Land beyond the Rocky Mountains was called the Oregon Country • Yankee merchants traded for furs with Indians. • Fur traders, called Mountain Men, adopted Indian ways.
Claiming the Oregon Country • By the early 1800s, four different nations (United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spain) had all claimed rights to the Oregon Country. • Great Britain signed the Convention of 1818, agreeing to joint occupation.
Arrival of Missionaries • Missionaries were sent to the Oregon Country, although most missionaries increased hostility instead of converting the Indians.
Chapter 7, Section 2Bound for the Pacific By:Bizz Alidost
Overland Travelers • Main route across the vast central plain and the Rocky Mountains • Journey to the Oregon country took four to six months • Very expensive $500-$1000 to make the trip • Reason for the journey was to obtain land • Many of the pioneers also enjoyed the challenge and independence of life on the frontier • Disease was a deadly threat to the pioneers more than the Native Americans • Cholera killed as many as 10,000 pioneers between 1840 and 1860 • By 1845 more than 5,000 Americans had migrated to the Oregon Country • Wagon trains traveled along the Oregon Trail
Mormon Migrations By: Noel Baker Mormons- a religious group founded by Joseph Smith in New York state. Mormons were harassed by neighbors who condemned their beliefs causing them to migrate in 1839 to Nauvoo, Illinois. Relations with neighbors in Illinois broke down in part because smith revealed that the Mormons allowed men to have more than one wife at the same time 1844- a hostile mob killed Smith and his brother and the Mormons moved once again. 1847- Hundreds of Mormons left their temporary camps in Iowa for new homes in the valley of the Great Salt Lake. The Route they followed came to be called the Mormon trail. Mormons prospered as farmers and traders by skillfully irrigating their desert region and by selling food and supplies to pioneers heading to California and Oregon.