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World History. Common Exam Preparation and Review. Common Exam. Two Parts- Timed No Substitute for Preparation 40 Minutes- Multiple Choice Answer Every Question No Pattern Look for K ey Vocabulary and Clues 40 Minutes- Constructed Response Answer Every Question

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world history

World History

Common Exam Preparation and Review

common exam
Common Exam
  • Two Parts- Timed
    • No Substitute for Preparation
    • 40 Minutes- Multiple Choice
      • Answer Every Question
      • No Pattern
      • Look for Key Vocabulary and Clues
    • 40 Minutes- Constructed Response
      • Answer Every Question
      • Provide specific examples/answers to the questions
key terminology
Key Terminology
  • “American Dream” is a national ethos of the United States in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success. It is the aspiration of Americans to live better than their parents did. The American Dream is a concept that builds the aspirations of Americans to live better than their parents upon the traditional social ideals of the US, such as equality, democracy, and material prosperity.
  • Chronological thinking refers to the way that historians make sense of events by placing them in their order of occurrence in time.
  • Economic issues are matters, which directly or indirectly affect the distribution of intellectual and material resources in a society.
  • Founding Principles - The constitutional values and principles held by Americans that provide the foundation for American attitudes regarding political life. These principles have influenced the development and maintenance of American constitutional democracy.
  • Global interaction refers to the development of international systems of exchange that result in networks of trade and communications and cultural and political exchange.
  • Historical evidence is primary artifacts used to support a historical point of view or perspective.

Philosophical theories are the theories and ideas that shaped the development of intellectual philosophies and spanned many popular political, social and economic debates. The point of a theory is to explain observations, which in turn seek to explain the world or society in which we live.

  • Political issues are matters, which directly or indirectly affect a system involving government and its politics and are considered to be problems and controversies related to power and authority.
  • Principles of American Constitutional Democracy – Popular sovereignty and constitutional government. Constitutional government includes rule of law representative institutions, separated and shared powers, checks and balances, individual rights, separation of church and state, federalism, and civilian control of the military.
  • Public interest - The public interest refers to the welfare of the general public (in contrast to the selfish interest of a person, group, or firm) in which the whole society has a stake and which warrants recognition, promotion, and protection by the government and its agencies.
  • Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect a person or members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both.

Historical interpretation occurs when a certain historical event is described from different points of views. When this is done in first-person, it is sometimes referred to as living history.

  • Historical narrative is an account, report or story of events or experiences that is based on factual evidence from the past.
  • Historical perspective - describing the past on its own terms, through the eyes and experiences of those who were there, as revealed through their literature, diaries, letters, debates, arts, artifacts, etc.
  • Literal meaning refers to the meaning of a passage, text, etc. as the original author would have intended and what the original hearers/readers would have understood.
  • Multiple causation is the mutual effect by many different forces to cause a particular action or occurrence.
  • National identity is the depiction of a country as a whole, encompassing its culture, traditions, language, and politics.
ancient civilizations

Ancient Civilizations

Concepts- Civilization, Achievement, Growth, Influence, Trade, Innovation, Class

2 1 geographic issues
2.1 Geographic Issues

Geographic Issues

Ancient Civilizations


Indus Valley

Yellow River


Mediterranean Sea

  • Flooding
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Early River Valley Civilizations
  • Natural Barriers

Spread of Civilization





  • Trade
  • Technology
  • Communication
  • Nomadic vs. Settled Groups
2 2 governments
2.2 Governments

Types of Government




Values and Beliefs



Examples: Greece, Rome, India and China

  • Theocracy
  • Democracy
  • Oligarchy
  • Tyranny
  • Aristocracy
2 3 law codes
2.3 Law Codes



Acceptable Behavior

Unity of Society

Written Law

Centralized Power

Leads to Democracy in Greece

  • Hammurabi
    • One of first written law codes
  • Draco
    • Codified law in Athens- Draconian
  • Justinian
    • Roman Emperor law code- Natural law and Civil law
  • Theodosius
    • Published laws in the eastern half of the Roman Empire
    • Christian law
2 4 rise of empires
2.4 Rise of Empires




Cultural Exchange



Economic and Political Influence

Silk Roads


Internal and External Reasons






Monetary System






  • Mongol
  • Mughal
  • Ottoman
  • Ming
  • Mesoamerican
  • Inca
2 5 growth of religion
2.5 Growth of Religion



Geopolitical Expansion

Christianity and the Roman Empire

Buddhism and the Han Dynasty


Religious Toleration




Tenets of various religions

  • Buddhism
  • Christianity
  • Confucianism
  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Judaism
  • Shintoism
2 6 interaction between islamic world europe and asia
2.6 Interaction between Islamic World, Europe and Asia



Interaction between Islamic world and Medieval Europe

Factors leading to the Renaissance

  • Trade
  • Technology
  • Innovation
  • Scientific Thought
  • Art
2 7 decline and development of major empires
2.7 Decline and Development of Major Empires



Territorial Conflicts

Tension and Conflict

Commercial and Agricultural Improvements

Trade Routes

Exchange of Ideas




Balance of Power

  • Ghana
  • Mali
  • Songhai
  • Greece
  • Rome
  • China
  • Mughal
  • Mongol
  • Mesoamerica
  • Inca
2 8 social conditions
2.8 Social Conditions



Social Hierarchy

Religion and Economic Factors

Limited Diversity

Limited Social Mobility

  • Social Classes
  • Castes
  • Slavery
medieval civilizations

Medieval Civilizations

Concepts: Power, Authority, Government, Innovation, Conflict

3 1 religion influences culture
3.1 Religion Influences Culture



Religion often unites people and groups politically and culturally

Complete religious authority can lead to absolute power


Early Middle Ages

Middle Ages

High Middle Ages

Feudalism and Manor System

Medieval Popes

No Unity in Germany

Blended Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian traditions

Causes and Outcomes of the Crusades

Expansion of Empires

Power of The Church

  • Carolingian Dynasty
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Mughal Empire
  • Safavid Empire
3 2 religious and secular struggles
3.2 Religious and Secular Struggles



Conflict = Change

Struggle can lead to Nation-States

Religious Conflict led to Economic, Political and Social changes in Europe

Monarchs vs. Popes and royal authority


Magna Carta


  • Cluniac Reforms
  • Common Law
  • Magna Carta
  • Conflict between Popes and Emperors
  • Religious Schisms
  • Hundred Years War
3 3 agriculture trade and business
3.3 Agriculture, Trade and Business

Medieval Changes


Innovation and Technology

Population Shift


Revival of Trade

Bill of Exchange

Emergence of Middle Class

Bourgeoisie does not fit in Medieval System

  • Feudalism
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Commercial revolution
  • Banking System
  • Manorial System
  • Growth of Towns
3 4 farmable land and physical environments
3.4 Farmable Land and Physical Environments



Slash and Burn Agriculture

Step Terraces

Feudal Lords


Two Field to Three Field Systems

Enclosure Movement

  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Muslim Agricultural Revolution
  • Meso-American and Andean Agricultural Innovations
first age of global interaction

First Age of Global Interaction

Concepts: Reform, Exploration, Improvement

4 1 classical learning and religious reform
4.1 Classical Learning and Religious Reform

Global Interaction


Quest for Knowledge and lead to Global interaction

Innovations of Asian and Islamic Civilizations as well as Greco-Roman Culture foundation of Renaissance

Renaissance Art

Reformation and European Politics

Geographic location of Italian City-States

Reformation and Religious Reform

Printing Revolution and the Reformation

  • Renaissance
  • Protestant Reformation
  • Catholic Revolution
  • Printing Revolution
4 2 centralized nation states and empires
4.2 Centralized Nation-States and Empires



National Monarchies of the High Middle Ages

England- Parliamentary Monarchy

France- Absolutism

Germany and Italy- Failure of Monarchy

Protestant and Catholic Reformations

Treaty of Westphalia

Glorious Revolution

English Bill of Rights

English Civil War

Louis XIV

Peter the Great

Catherine the Great

Catholic vs. Protestant

  • Political, Economic and Social Reasons for Rise of Nation-States
  • Reformation
  • Absolutism
  • Limited Monarchies
  • Empires
4 3 agriculture and technological improvements
4.3 Agriculture and Technological Improvements



New Markets



Specialization of Labor

Diet Change

Standard of Living

Communication, Transportation. New Energy

  • Growth of Towns
  • Creation of Guilds
  • Commercialization
4 4 global trade
4.4 Global Trade



Marco Polo

Desire for Resources and Markets

Movement and Interaction of People

Desire for Wealth


Trade Competition

Spread of Christianity

Trade Routes

Affect of Crusades on European Exploration

Conquest of Asia, Africa and the Americas

Genghis Kahn

Unification of Mongol Empire 1200’s

Black Death

Spread of Disease

  • Europe
  • Southwest Asia
  • America
  • Africa
  • Mercantilism
  • Inflation
  • Capitalism
age of exploration and expansion

Age of Exploration and Expansion

Concepts: Exploration, Expansion, Colonization

5 1 motivation for exploration
5.1 Motivation for Exploration

Motivations and Global Interaction



Portuguese and Spanish Innovations

Scientific Revolution

Sea Route to Asia

Conflict between Europeans and Native Americans

Columbian Exchange

African Slave Trade

  • Religious and Political Motives
  • Adventure
  • Economic Investment
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Commercial Revolution
  • Conquistadors
    • Aztecs
    • Incas
  • Triangular Trade
  • Middle Passage
  • Plantations
5 2 cause and effects of exploration and expansion
5.2 Cause and Effects of Exploration and Expansion



Imprint of Culture and Religion on Settlements

Shift in the Balance of Economic and Political Power

Technological Innovations in Shipbuilding, Navigation and Naval Warfare

Printing Press



European Domination of the Globe

Migration of Europeans to the Americas

Deaths of Millions of Africans and native Americans

  • Technological Innovations
  • Acquisition of Colonial Possessions and Trading Privileges
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Americas
5 3 colonization
5.3 Colonization



Commercial Revolution

Columbian Exchange

Religious Conversion

Spread of Christianity


Encomienda System

Mixing of Populations

Enslavement of Indigenous Population

Increase of Wealth for Industry

Conflict Between Industrialized Nations

  • Resources and Markets
5 4 role of investment
5.4 Role of Investment

Global Exploration


Financial Risks

Economic Revolutions

New Business Methods

16th – 18th Century

  • Transatlantic Trade
  • Mercantilism
  • Joint-Stock Companies
  • Trading Companies
  • Corporations
  • Government and Monarchial Funding
age of revolution and rebellion

Age of Revolution and Rebellion

Concepts: Revolution, Conflict, Industrialism, Power, Change

6 1 new ideas and theories
6.1 New Ideas and Theories













Adam Smith

  • Scientific Revolution
  • Enlightenment
  • Rationalism
  • Secularism
  • Humanism
  • Tolerance
  • Empiricism
  • Natural Rights
  • Contractual Government
  • Laissez-Faire Economics
  • Inductive and deductive Reasoning
  • Heliocentric
  • Geocentric
  • Inquisition
  • Popular Sovereignty
6 2 political revolutions
6.2 Political Revolutions







  • Glorious Revolution
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution
  • Russian Revolution
6 3 industrialism and the environment
6.3 Industrialism and the Environment
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Geographic Factors
  • Technological Innovations
  • Deforestation
  • Pollution
  • Urbanization
  • Mining
6 4 industrialization and urbanization
6.4 Industrialization and Urbanization

Social and Economic Reform


Specialization of Labor and Efficiency

New Wealth

Middle Class

Labor Unions



French Revolution

  • Urbanization
  • Growth of Middle Class
  • Economic Status
  • Labor Organizations
national regional and ethic conflicts

National, Regional and Ethic Conflicts

Concepts: Turning Point, Competition, Nationalism, Imperialism, Conflict, War, Power, Change

7 2 economic and military competition
7.2 Economic and Military Competition
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Industrialization
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Japanese Empire
  • Prussian Empire
  • German Empire
    • Otto Von Bismarck
  • Italy
  • Hapsburg Rulers
  • Russian Empire
    • Revolution of 1905
  • America
  • Markets
  • Resources
7 3 causes of war
7.3 Causes of War
  • Causes of WWI
    • Militarism
    • Alliances
    • Imperialism
    • Nationalism
    • Assassination and Serbian Nationalism
  • Russian Revolution
    • Karl Marx
  • Causes of WWII
    • WWI and German Nationalism
    • German Debt
    • Treaty of Versailles
    • League of Nations
    • Axis Expansion
7 4 nationalistic movements
7.4 Nationalistic Movements
  • India
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Mao Zedong
  • Chiang Kai-Shek
  • Economic Imperialism
7 5 response to capitalism
7.5 Response to Capitalism
  • Utopianism
  • Social Democracy
  • Socialism
  • Communism
  • Marshall Plan
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Eisenhower Doctrine
7 6 economic crisis
7.6 Economic Crisis
  • Great Depression
  • Colonial Africa
  • Colonial Asia
  • Socialism
  • Communism
  • Unequal Distribution of Wealth
  • Social Equality
  • Credit
  • Debt
  • Balance of Trade
  • Mao Zedong
  • Chiang Kai-Shek
  • Korean and Vietnam Conflict
global interdependence

Global Interdependence

Concepts: Politics, War, power, Influence, Interdependence, Change, Innovation

8 1 global wars
8.1 Global Wars

Global Wars


Nationalism, Imperialism, Industrialization lead to Economic and Military Competition between European Nations

Failure of Treaty of Versailles

Global Depression

Totalitarian Governments

Total War


Jews, Armenians, Poles, Ukrainians, Chinese

American Isolationism

Vietnam- Political Instability

  • Spanish-American War
  • World War II
  • World War II
  • Vietnam War
  • Colonial Wars
  • Persian Gulf War
8 2 international politics
8.2 International Politics
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Korean War
  • Hungarian Revolt
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • OPEC Oil Crisis
  • Iranian Revolt
  • 9/11
  • Terrorism
  • Containment
  • Brinkmanship
  • Flexible Response
  • Peaceful Coexistence
  • Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Glasnost
  • Perestroika
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Warsaw Pact
  • NATO
8 3 balance of power
8.3 Balance of Power
  • Post WWII
  • Cold War
  • 1990’s Globalization
  • New World Order
  • Iron Curtain
  • Berlin Wall
  • Destruction of the Berlin Wall
8 4 innovations
8.4 Innovations
  • Satellites
  • Computers
  • Social Networking
  • Information Highway
  • Global Economies
  • Ethical Dilemma
  • Military Systems
  • HIV
  • Sputnik
  • Space Race
  • Science, Math, Foreign Language
8 5 environment
8.5 Environment
  • Deforestation
  • Pollution
  • Clear Cutting
  • Ozone Depletion
  • Climate Change
  • Global Warming
  • Industrial Emissions
  • Fuel Combustion
8 6 political economic and social life
8.6 Political, Economic and Social Life
  • Human Rights
  • End of Cold War
  • Apartheid
  • Glasnost
  • Perestroika
  • Tiananmen Square
  • UN Declaration of Human Rights
8 7 terrorism
8.7 Terrorism
  • PLO
  • IRA
  • Tamil Tigers
  • Al Qaeda
  • Chechnya's
  • Hamas
  • Hezbollah
  • Muslim Brotherhood
  • Palestinian Islamic Jihad
  • Fundamentalism
  • Jihad
  • Sharia Law
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Religious
  • Social
  • Intellectual
  • Artistic
  • Author
  • Place and Time
  • Prior Knowledge
  • Audience
  • Reason
  • The Main Idea
  • Significance