PERSUASIVE SPEAKING DEFINITION: It asks your audience to “buy” something that you are selling.
What do we “buy”? • A product, a belief, an attitude, an idea, an activity, or maintaining a current belief. • It provides information, goes one step further, and asks the audience to “do” something based on the information. • Demands that you effectively: a. Induce your audience to believe as you do. b. Influence the audience to cause some sort of directed action to take place.
What do we “buy”? 4. A good idea that you’re proposing 5. A well thought out plan of action a. The plan is realistic b. It’s the right thing to do or believe 6. People react (the link) based on what they want, how they think, and how they feel. 7. It’s your job to “push” the right button – logically or emotionally.
ANALYZING YOUR AUDINECE Marcus Tullius Cicero in, On Oratory, stated that the most important insight that the orator had was of his audience – analysis of types. 1. Supportive (Positive): friendly, easiest; they like you and what you have to say They need ethical appeals (ethos). a. Competence on the subject b. Honesty – develop common ground & mutual respect c. Great delivery style d. Appearance
Audience Analysis 2. Uncommitted (Neutral): They are not for or against you. They need information. Audience Examples: Juries and interviewers. a. Tend to be unbiased/lack prejudice. b. They are undecided but require good, solid logical (physical evidence) and ethical appeals (honesty). c. When they make a decision, they want there to be no doubt.
ANALYZING YOUR AUDIENCE 3. INDIFFERENT: A BIT TOUGH; MEMBERS ARE APATHETHIC TOWARD YOU (NOT OPPOSED, BUT APPEARED BORED) a. “CAPTIVE” AUDIENCE: FORCED TO ATTEND b. NEED A STRONG “LINK” SAYING THAT THE SUBJECT IS RELEVANT TO THEIR PERSONAL NEEDS. *EXAMPLES: Does it touch on their HEALTH, FAMILY, SECURITY, WALLET, SOCIAL STATUS, and EDUCATION! c. Evidence needs to be Emotional (Pathos) and Logical (Logos) in nature. 1) Use personal experiences 2) Expert opinions/quotes/testimonies 3) Experiences of others
ANALYZING YOUR AUDIENCE 4. OPPOSED: MEMBERS ARE HOSTILE TO YOU AND THE SUBJECT a. TRY TO GET A FAIR HEARING, SHOW THAT YOU ARE WILLING TO “COMPROMISE” WITH THE AUDIENCE ON THE SUBJECT b. YOU’RE NOT PERFECT, YOU SEE MERIT ON THEIR SIDE. EX. GOV. c. They need LOTS of Logical Evidence (logos): Physical evidence, case studies, eye witnesses, etc.
Classical Rhetorical Analysis – Aristotle’s Appeals I. LOGOS/Logical Appeal: You appeal to the intellect of your audience by offering a clearly defined speech that contains solid reasoning and valid evidence. A. It satisfies the analytical side of your audience. B. You want the speech to make sense to the first time it’s heard – prima facie.
How do you achieve Logos? • Be Organized! a. Speeches have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Remember what goes into each part. b. Arrange the body of the speech based on the persuasive purpose (text – pages 302 – 305 samples): Cause/Effect OR Comparison/Contrast Problem/Solution OR Climatic OR Pro/Con OR Motivated Sequence
Problem/Solution: Most Sophisticated (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) It follows Five Steps: Attention, Need, Satisfaction , Visualization, and Action EXAMPLE: How should the World Health Organization respond to the global AIDS epidemic? • Introduction: Attention! Shocking Statistics with relevant LINK • Body A. Why we Need a response? 1. Current problem 2. Current system’s nonworking solution 3. Current failures B. Satisfaction: Speaker’s advocated solution outlining WHO’s actions C. Visualization:Benefits of WHO’s actions 1. Individual 2. World D. Action: The steps needed to put it to work III. Conclusion A. Summary B. Restated Thesis C. Zinger/Clincher – Call to Action
How do you achieve Logos? 2. Offer Proof: specific evidence a. It establishes the reality of something. b. It is part of the supporting materials and details needed to convince. c. Providing proof/evidence shows your listeners that you have intelligence. d. Intelligence is appealing!
Classical Rhetorical Analysis II.PATHOS (Emotional Appeal): when people react instinctively in an emotional manner and let their feelings show. A. Can have a stronger impact on an audience than intellect. B. Aims for the heart: love, anger, disgust, fear, compassion, patriotism, or the like. C. Few audiences like lists of cold, hard facts. Add excitement/emotions that move the audience (use personal experiences and illustrations). D. Don’t forget Tone and Nonverbal Messages!
CLASSICAL RHETORICAL ANALYSIS III. Ethos (Personal Appeal): the audience knows that you have “it”. Your audience will buy what you have to sell, because they trust in your credibility, your personal character. A. Honesty: you tell the truth and have personal Integrity (sense of right and wrong) B. Competency: capability – you can get the job done, have the right credentials – qualifications, and composure-the knack of dealing with people
Classical Rhetorical Analysis IV. The United Approach: using all three of the previous methods together to convince your audience to your point of view.
TEN Characteristics of Professional Persuaders • You are an interested introvert, rather than an interesting extrovert. • You radiate confidence and strength in your walk, talk, and presence. • You balance ego, drive, and the need for success with warm and sincere sympathy for the people you serve. • You are highly goal-oriented. • You put into writing what you plan to do daily. • You live in the present moment and keep your enthusiasm through crises. • You keep yourself in a positive shell and avoid jealousy, gossip, anger, or negative thinking. • You love people and use money, instead of loving money and using people. • You invest monthly in the greatest investment on earth – your mind.
The Manuscript – Write out every word of a speech ADVANTAGES: • Not forget what to say. 2. Adjusts to predetermined time limits. 3. Careful wording of a touchy topic. DISADVANTAGES: • Difficult to write a natural/conversational speech due to word choice. 2. Public Reading is NOT Public Speaking. 3. Eye contact, gesture, and movement is lost.
Manuscript Preparation • Read on the topic & take notes. 2. Form a rough outline based on purpose. 3. Write the body first. 4. “Talk” through each section as you write (write what you say). 5. Write the introduction next and finally the conclusion. 6. Make it EASY to READ: LARGE TYPE & skip a space between each line. 7. Include speaking cues and movements.
What needs to be in the manuscript! Underline it! • Introduction A. Attention-getter B. Link C. Thesis D. Preview statement II. Body A. Transition to first point or argument 1. Cited source with evidence 2. Explanation of how evidence supports the argument. B. Transition to second claim or argument 1. Cited source with evidence 2. Explanation c. Transition to third labeled contention, etc. III. Conclusion A. Summary B. Restated thesis C. Zinger
PRESENTATION SUGGESTIONS • Sound Natural/Conversational 2. Write out the speech on the top third or half of the paper. This will keep you from glancing all the way down. 3. Slide one page on top of the other. Lay our pages 1 and 2, and slide 2 over 1 to see 3. 4. Show two pages at the same time. 5. End each page with a complete sentence. 6. PRACTICE, PRACTICE, AND PRACTICE OUTLOUD BEFORE AN AUDIENCE.
Topic Outline Format • Keep the outline, but cut it down to words or phrases (think fragments). 2. Practice it until you’ve practically memorized it – helps with the conversational style and eye contact. 3. Be sure to write the Attribute on the card for your evidence/information.