DefiningPersuasion Please write out your own personal definition of persuasion
Persuasion Persuasion– Persuasion is the communicative processby which we try to influence people to changetheir attitudes, beliefs, values and/ or behaviors through the transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice.
Pre-Condition to Persuasion The Persuasive Speech must occur in an atmosphere of “FREE CHOICE” People are free when they are NOT forced to comply or pressured to act against their own preferences. People are free when they can reject the idea or refuse the action suggested to them
Pre-Condition to Persuasion The object or topic of the speech must be a CONTINGENT issue SYN: debatable, contestable, uncertain ANT: proven, settled, certain
The Public Speaking Continuum: Informative vs. Persuasive The more change a speaker asks from an audience, the more challenging the presentation.
The Informative speaker is a teacher. The Persuasive speaker is an advocate. Points of Contrast
The Informative speaker adopts an objective / unbiased posture to the information and the audience No Agenda The Persuasive speaker adopts a subjective / biased posture to the information and the audience Clear Agenda Points of Contrast
Informative speaking reveals and clarifies options for an audience Persuasive speaking urges its audience to choose one option over others. Points of Contrast
Informative speaking presents information without asking the audience for any commitment. Persuasive speaking presents information and asks the audience to make a commitment. Points of Contrast
Informative Speakers face limited ethical obligations. Persuasive speakers face extensive ethical obligations. Points of Contrast
In Class Exercise FACT vs. OPINION DIRECTIONS: Read the Article entitled, “Bring the Drunken Santas Under Control” Work on distinguishing the difference between FACTS and OPINIONS. Which lines in it are facts? Which are opinions? How can you tell the difference?
Persuasive Speech Outcomes Persuasive Speakers craft messages designed to change the way audience members think and/or how the audience members act
Speaker Objectives that lead to the desired Outcome Continuance – to get an audience to continue to think or behave as they do now Discontinuance –to get an audience to stopthinking or behaving as they do now Adoption – to get an audience to accepta new idea / belief / way of behaving Deterrence – to get an audience to avoid a way of thinking / way of behaving
IV. Audience-Centered Persuasion We often think of persuasion as something a speaker does to an audience. In fact, as a great deal of research shows, persuasion is something a speaker does with an audience
Speaker – KNOW your Audience!! • Demographic Analysis • Attitudinal Analysis • Types of Audiences • Supportive • Receptive • Indifferent • Hostile Supportive Hostile
Degrees of Persuasion Strongly Opposed ModeratelyOpposed SlightlyOpposed Neutral Slightlyin Favor Moderatelyin Favor Strongly in Favor Persuasion involves any movement by a listener from left to right
TAKE AIM!! -- All Persuasive Speeches have a Target Audience The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
TAKE AIM!! -- All Persuasive Speeches have a Target Audience • Persuasive Speakers should be able to answer these questions: • What response do I want to elicit from this specific audience? • Would I like them to think differently, act different, or both? • Which of their attitudes or beliefs am I trying to alter? Why?
Who is the Target Audience??
Who is the Target Audience??
Who is the Target Audience??
In Class Exercise Target Audiences • Find two advertisements: One (1) Print or Online Static Ad and one (1) commercial or online advertisement. • Analyze each advertisement for its persuasive content and appeal • Complete the following on a separate sheet of paper: • The name of “product” being advertised • Intended Audience-Who are they trying to sell this product to? Exlain how you know who the target audience is… • Residual Message of advertisement (buy this product because…) • Present your findings to the class
The Cornerstones of Persuasion Ethos Pathos Logos
ETHOSPersuasive appeal anchored in the perceived personal character of the speakerCharacter – Competence – Confidence – Compassion – Connection • The Speaker has integrity. • The Speaker can be trusted. • The Speaker demonstrates goodwill toward us. • The Speaker know what they are talking about. • The Speaker is committed to the topic • The speaker showing enthusiasm and dynamism in his/her presentation
LogosPersuasive appeal anchored in logic and the appeal to rationality Argument = Claims and Evidence Claim Reasons / Evidence to support the claim Reasoning inductive – using specific examples to make a general claim deductive – using a general truth to make a specific claim causal – using evidence to make a logical prediction
PathosPersuasive appeal anchored by the activation of emotion • These appeals acknowledge the fact that we are influenced by our feelings. • Appeal to listeners’ emotions to get them involved with your speech, not for the sake of emotional arousal itself.
Logos vs. Pathos: A Consideration • Logic and Emotion are not at war or in contrast with each other • Rather they are Integrated and SymbioticModes of Persuasion • “Rational Emotions” • The emotions and emotional responses that naturally accompany specific topics, circumstances, or issues
In Class Exercise Ethos – Pathos - Logos 1. Read the Opinion article “Rap Lyrics on Trial,” in which Erik Nielson and Charis E. Kubrin argue that lyrics are wrongly being used against amateur rappers in court. 2. As you read, highlight examples of logos, pathos and ethos used in the Op-Ed article. Use a different color highlighter for each rhetorical appeal.
Group Project Producing Advertisements 1. Read the Opinion article “Rap Lyrics on Trial,” in which Erik Nielson and Charis E. Kubrin argue that lyrics are wrongly being used against amateur rappers in court. 2. As you read, highlight examples of logos, pathos and ethos used in the Op-Ed article. Use a different color highlighter for each rhetorical appeal.
Types of Persuasive Speeches • Speeches that seek to REINFORCE • Strengthening existing attitudes, beliefs, or values by bolstering attitudes and convictions that the audience already posses • “Preaching to the Choir” – The Lowest Level of Persuasion • I want my audience to believe more strongly that MSA offers its students an excellent Arts-infused educational experience
Types of Persuasive Speeches • Speeches that seek to CONVINCE • Urging listeners to accept contentious facts, evaluate and accept new beliefs, or support a call to action • Claims of fact—statements that ask listeners to accept the truth or falsity of some assertion or claim • Claims of value—statements that ask listeners to agree with a judgment or evaluation • Claims of policy—statements that ask listeners to consider/take a specific course of action
Persuasive speech that focuses on a question of fact. • To persuade my audience to accept a claim of truth or falsity surrounding a knowable, but debatable issue • It’s all about marshaling EVIDENCE to establish the “truth” of your claim • Examples include predictions, causation, historical controversy, or questions of existence • I want my audience to BELIEVE that recent NFL rule changes have led to fewer concussion injuries in football.
Structuring Fact Speeches • I want my audience to believe that
Persuasive speech that focuses on a question of value. • To ask an audience to agree that something is right or wrong, moral or immoral, or better or worse than another thing. • Make a VALUE JUDGMENT • ”I want my audience to AGREE that it is wrong to share downloaded music files." • ”I want my audience to AGREE that living in dorms is a better option than living in off campus housing."
Structuring Value Speeches • I want my audience to agree that…
Persuasive speech that focuses on a question of policy. • This speech advocates that some action should or should not be taken. • “I want my audience to understand that they SHOULD donate blood” • “I want my my audience to understand that they SHOULD vote for John Smith as Governor • I want my audience to understand that the federal government SHOULD NOT legalize marijuana
Structuring Policy Speeches • I want my audience to understand that they should…
In Class Exercise Fact - Value - Policy Write out 3 different Residual Messages (1 Fact, 1 Value, 1 Policy) for the following topics: 1. Women in the Military 2. Learning Spanish 3. Illegal Immigration 4. Dancing