CONSTRUCT PERSUASIVE SPEECH GOAL • ADAPT PS GOAL TO INITIAL AUDIENCE ATTITUDE OPPOSED - REWORD GOAL E.g.“I want to convince my audience that smoking is bad for health” “I want to convince my audience that smoking will not only affect the health of smokers but also the health of their loved ones”
NEUTRAL Reasons for neutrality: Uninformed-not much knowledge of topic Impartial-no opinion Apathetic-not interested/unconcerned
IN FAVOUR - Reinforce and strengthen audience’s beliefs.
IN PS - SPECIFIC GOAL IS STATED AS A PROPOSITION PROPOSITION OF FACT “I want to persuade the audience that there is a God” PROPOSITION OF VALUE “ I want to persuade my audience to vote me in the next elections”
PROPOSITION OF POLICY “I want my audience to believe that all courses should be taught in English”
SPEECH PLANNING ACTION STEP • Writing the specific goal 1. Tentatively phrase goal as proposition 2. Check audience’s attitude. 3. Check whether revised proposition is one of fact, value or policy.
SPEECH PLANNING ACTION STEP 4. Write the finalised proposition. 5. List as many reasons to support specific goal. 6. Choose the three or four that would be most persuasive for your audience. 7. Write a Thesis Statement incorporating these reasons.
E.g • Proposition • I want to convince my audience that they should not download music from the internet.
Downloading music is unethical • “Downloading music” is extremely harmful to recording companies • Downloading music is extremely harmful to artists • Downloading music is extremely harmful to your computer • Downloading music is illegal • Downloading music might result in penalties.
THESIS STATEMENT • Three good reasons for not downloading music off the Internet are that it’s extremely harmful to recording companies and artists, and it’s illegal.
SELECTING EVIDENCE • ASK DOES THE EVIDENCE COME FROM A WELL-RESPECTED SOURCE? IS THE EVIDENCE RECENT AND IF NOT, IS IT STILL VALID?
SELECTING EVIDENCE • DOES THE EVIDENCE REALLY SUPPORT THE REASON? • WILL THIS EVIDENCE BE PERSUASIVE FOR THIS AUDIENCE?
ESSENTIALS OF REASONING • REASONING? • ARGUMENTS? CLAIM- A CONCLUSION TO BE PROVEN. SUPPORT- WITH REASONS/EVIDENCE
E.g SG: I want the audience to believe that the car needs a tune- up. (claim) • I. The car misses at slow speeds. (R & C) A. On Tues. it was missing when driving below 20 kmh (E) B. On Wed. it did the same thing (E)
II. The car stalls at traffic lights. (R & E) A. It stalled twice on Monday. (E) B. It stalled at every traffic light yesterday. (E)
WARRANT • - a logical statement that connects the support to the claim.
TYPES & TESTS OF ARGUMENTS • ARGUING FROM EXAMPLE • E.g • CLili should be elected • SLili won the previous elections • A. Lili won the election for student council • B. Lili won the election for treasurer W Because Lili was elected before, she should be elected this year.
ARGUING FROM ANALOGY C UPM should conduct a raffle to raise money for the clock tower. S UKM raised enough money through a raffle to build its clock tower. W What worked at UKM, will work at UPM
ARGUING FROM CAUSATION C Home sales will increase S Mortgage interest rates have dropped W Lower interest rates generally lead to higher home sales.
ARGUING FROM SIGN C You have had an allergic reaction. S A. You have hives. B. You have slight fever. W Hives & slight fever are signs of an allergic reaction.
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS • STATEMENT OF REASON PATTERN E.g P I want my audience to believe that passing the proposed school tax levy is necessary. I. Income will enable schools to restore vital programs. II. Income will enable school to give teachers a raise. III. Income will allow community to maintain local control & will save the district from state intervention.
COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES • P I want my audience to believe that passing the school tax levy is better than not passing it. I. Income from levy will enable school to reintroduce important programs (Adv. 1) II. Income…..to avoid a strike by teachers (A2) III. Income….retain control…. (A3)
CRITERIA SATISFACTION P I want my audience to believe that passing a school levy is a good way to fund our schools. I We all can agree that a good school funding must meet three criteria A B C
PROBLEM SOLUTION P The current fiscal crisis in the school district can be solved through a local tax levy. I The current funding is insufficient & has resulted in program cuts etc. (Statement of problems) II The proposed tax levy is enough to solve these problems. (Solution)