Aristotle A Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Contributed to many disciplines including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology.
Aristotle Aristotle wrote his Rhetoric in the 4th century BCE Rhetoric: one of the arts of using language as a means to persuade. Aristotle wanted to find and teach people the ways that speakers or writers could persuade their audiences by the use of evidence.
3 Appeals of Evidence • Aristotle formed the concept of the 3 appeals of evidence. Logos Pathos Ethos
Logos Logos- Logical Appeals Logos- means persuading by the use of reasoning. This is the most important technique and Aristotle's favorite.
Questions to ask yourself: • Is each reason relevant to your thesis? • Is each reason distinct? • Does each reason provide strong support for your thesis? • Will the audience consider each reason important? • Do you have just enough evidence? • At least 3, no more than 5?
Examples of Logos: • Facts • Statistics • Literal and historical analogies • Definitions • Quotations • Citations from experts and authorities • Informed opinions
Deductive Reasoning • Is- Reasoning from a general condition to a specific instance. • In other words- you start with your Thesis statement and you present reasons to support it.
Inductive Reasoning • Is- Reasoning which involves moving from a set of specific facts to a general conclusion • In other words – start with your evidence and lead up to your thesis.
Ethos Ethos- EthicalAppeal Ethos- means convincing by the character of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. in other words making yourself into an authority on the subject, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.
Examples of Ethos • Language appropriate to audience and subject • Sincere, fair minded presentation • Appropriate level of vocabulary • Correct grammar
Pathos • Pathos- Emotional Appeal • Pathos- means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument.
Examples of Pathos • Emotionally loaded language • Emotional examples • Vivid descriptions • Narratives of emotional events • Emotional tone