Persuasive Speaking Speech #5 http://youtu.be/V57lotnKGF8
Persuasive Speech A speech designed to change or reinforce the audience’s beliefs or actions.
Informative Speech Persuasive Speech To increase knowledge To change mind or action Message’s Purpose To define, describe, explain, compare To shape, reinforce, change audience responses Speaker’s Intent Listener’s Effect To know more than before, to advance what is known To feel or think differently, to behave or act differently Audience Choice To willingly learn new knowledge To change behavior by choice Informative and Persuasive Speech Differences:
What is a persuasive speech? • To convince someone to think, believe, or act as you want them to. • Establishes a fact • Changes a belief • Moves an audience to act on a policy
When do we use persuasion? • How often each day do you try to get someone to do something? • Take a moment and think about this past weekend. List three times you tried to get someone else to do something. • Examples: Aw, Mom, can’t I drive to the concert? I bet you could drive when you were 16! OR Let me borrow your jacket, it looks great with these jeans. I’ll take good care of it!
Degrees of persuasion • Some persuade on small matters: door-to-door salesperson, taking a “study break” • Others persuade on more pressing issues: Parents/teachers influence career decisions; friends influence your choices regarding alcohol.
Types of Persuasion • Question of fact: Recycling can save the local community money. Coffee drinkers have a higher risk of heart disease. • Question of belief: Small schools are better for most students than larger schools are. It is wrong to avoid jury duty. • Question of policy: High school athletes should be required to maintain a B average. Funding for space exploration should be increased.
Question of Fact A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
Questions of Fact. • Want audience to accept speaker’s view on facts of issue • Some can be answered w/certainty—some can’t • Different from an informative speech • Try to get audience to accept your view • Usually organized topically • Each main point is a reason why audience should agree with you
Persuasive Speech--Question of Fact Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that another major earthquake will hit California by the year 2025. Central Idea: There are three good reasons to believe that another major earthquake will hit California by the year 2025. Main Points: I. California is long overdue for a major earthquake. II. Many geological signs indicate that a major earthquake may happen soon. III. Experts agree that a major earthquake could hit California any day.
Question of Value A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Questions of Value. • Judgments about: • right or wrong, • good or bad, • moral or immoral, • ethical, unethical. • Justify position according to clear standards • Usually organized topically • 1st main point establishes standards • 2nd main point applies standards to topic
Persuasive Speech--Question of Value Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong. Central Idea: Capital punishment violates both the Bible and the U.S. Constitution. Main Points: I. Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.” II. Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on “cruel and unusual punishment.”
Question of Policy A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
Questions of Policy • Deal with specific course of action • Most common in persuasive speeches • Two types • Passive agreement that policy is desirable, necessary, practical • Motivate audience to take action
Persuasive Speech--Question of Policy Purpose: To persuade my audience that America should act now to protect the quality of its drinking water. Central Idea: Impure drinking water is a serious national problem that requires action by citizens and government alike. Main Points: I. Impure drinking water has become a serious national problem. II. Solving the problem requires action by citizens and government alike.
Which type of persuasion is being used in these examples? • Seattle does not deserve its reputation for having an extremely rainy climate. • The US should abolish the electoral college. • South High has a better basketball team than North High. • You should watch the documentary about jobs for teenagers. • Illiteracy continues to be an important national problem.
Presenting Your Speech • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence • Attention: get interest of receivers • Need: establish the need for change/action • Satisfaction: relieve the problem • Visualization: picture the benefits • Action: what can receivers do? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0ED3PckYaM&feature=share&list=ECA4047C91F7DA0347
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence • 1. Attention:Gain attention of audience. • 2. Need:Make audience feel need for change. • 3. Satisfaction:Satisfy need by providing solution to problem. • 4. Visualization:Intensify desire for solution • by visualizing it’s benefits. • 5. Action:Urge audience to take action in support of solution.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence • Have you ever felt unsafe walking home from the library on a dark evening? • College students face many crime issues. • Enrolling in a self-defense course is one way we can help. • After taking a self-defense class, you will be much better able to deal with an emergency situation. • I encourage you to enroll in a self-defense class.
Why Use Monroe’s Sequence? • Organizational pattern • Develops a sense of need or want in the audience • Offers satisfaction for that need/want • Gets the audience excited/enthused about the advantages of that solution
Need vs. Want • Need = necessity fills a significant, life impacting void • Want = desire forsomething we would like to have • Determine whether your topic addresses a need or want so as not to mislead the audience
Attention • Goal: to get the audience to listen • Use attention getting devices to gain interest and ease the audience into the topic • Do not offer your solution during this step • Relate the attention directly to the audience.
Need • Goal: to get the audience to feel a need or want (audience should agree) • Step 1: Statement • Step 2: Illustration • Step 3: Ramification • Step 4: Pointing • Show the problem exists, it is a significant problem, and it won’t go away by itself
Satisfaction • Goal: to tell audience how to fill need or want • Step 1: Statement • Step 2: Explanation • Step 3: Theoretical Demonstration • Step 4: Reference to Practical Experience • Step 5: Meeting Objections • Solutions can be specific or general
Visualization • Goal: to get the audience to see the benefits of the solution • Option A: The Positive Method • Option B: The Negative Method • Option C: The Contrast Method • Tell the audience what will happen if they don’t do something about the problem.
Call for Action • Goal: to get the audience to take action • Brief • Powerful • Well worded • End on a strong note • Offer alternatives to your audience that they can do personally to help solve the problem
Things to watch out for… • Similarities in steps. • Do not skip a step • Take time to build the need. • Use clear statements at the beginning of each step. • Solution really does meet the need. • Workability • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0D00efRkCWw&feature=share&list=ECA4047C91F7DA0347