Reflection (name, Lab #, Instructor) • What is one thing you learned from the content of the speeches during the Informative round? • What is one thing you learned about speech-making by watching others do it? • What is one thing you plan to do during the next assignment because of your experience during the informative round? • What is something you have been persuaded to do or to think about differently during the past year?
Agenda • What is Persuasive Speaking? • What are the requirements for our next assignment? • How do I get started? • Specific Purposes • Policy Speeches (The 3 Ps)
Persuasive speaking can be contrasted with informative speaking. • The two appear on a continuum. • Informative ---------------------- Persuasive
Informative speaking reveals and clarifies options. Persuasive speaking urges us to choose from among options. There are several points of contrast.
Informative speaking asks the audience for little commitment. Persuasive speaking asks the audience for major commitment. Points of Contrast
Informative Speakers face limited ethical obligations. Persuasive speakers face extensive ethical obligations. Points of Contrast
The informative speaker is a teacher. The Persuasive speaker is a leader. Points of Contrast
Informative speeches rarely contain emotional appeals. Persuasive speeches typically include emotional appeals. Points of Contrast
One focus of persuasion is the question of fact. • Something we can know to be true or false, but right now we can argue about it. • Examples include predictions, historical controversy, or questions of existence.
A second focus of persuasion is the question of value. • something is right or wrong, moral or immoral, or better or worse than another thing. • "To persuade my audience that it is wrong to share downloaded music files." • "To persuade my audience that dorms are better than off campus housing."
A third focus of persuasion is the question of policy. • Some action should or should not be taken. • “To persuade my audience to donate blood.” • “To persuade my audience that the city of Ames should/should not build a parking garage in campus town.” • “To persuade my audience to support the expansion of the Children’s Health Insurance Program.” • The form is always: "To persuade my audience that X should do Y."
Fact, Value or Policy?(this is ex. 2 p. 429 in textbook) 1. To persuade my audience to donate time as a community volunteer.
Turn it into a fact issue • To persuade my audience that experience as volunteers will help them on the job market.
Turn it into a value issue • To persuade my audience that they have a moral obligation to become community volunteers.
Turn it into a different kind of policy • To persuade my audience that the U.S. should adopt a mandatory youth community service program.
Fact, Value, or Policy? 5. Look at what you wrote for # 4 on the reflection; was it a fact, value or policy issue you were persuaded about? Explain briefly. [If you have nothing for #4, then tell me what this statement is: “To persuade my audience that violence on television is a major cause of violent behavior in society.” And turn it into a specific purpose statement for a question of policy.]
Your Assignment See your workbook, pp. 46-50 • Goals: A Policy Speech • Topics: approved, substantial, “controversial” and submitted on WebCT by Friday at 8 p.m. • Time: 8 minutes • Sources: minimum of 4 strong sources; review guidelines about sources in W pp. 53, 57-58
Your Assignment • Visual Aid—discretion of lab instructor • Extemporaneous delivery • Preparation outlines due by workshop—next Tuesday • Formal final outline due on speaking day • Speaking outline to deliver from
What do I do next? Persuasive Speech Policy Analysis
One type of Persuasive speech Aims to Gain Passive Agreement • To persuade my audience that the Iowa legislature should adopt new laws to better protect the victims of domestic abuse. • To persuade my audience that the federal government should impose a ban on all advertising for cigarettes and other tobacco products.
The Other Type of Policy Speech Aims to Gain Immediate Action • To persuade my audience to volunteer as literacy tutors. • To persuade my audience to boycott Nike products. • To persuade my audience to participate in the political process beyond voting. • To persuade my audience to sign a petition for longer library hours.
Central Concept from Lucas “We often think of persuasion as something a speaker does to an audience. In fact, as a great deal of research shows, persuasion is something a speaker does with an audience” (p. 403).
After Topic and Goal Selection; Move to Analysis • Arguing to change the status quo. • The speaker advocating change has the Burden of Proof • The three issues to consider are grounded in theories of human psychology.
The Three Ps:Persuasive Speech Stock Issues • 1. The Problem issue refers to what is wrong with the status quo. • 2. The Plan issue refers to the solution. • 3. The Practicality issue refers to considerations of how well the plan solves the problem and its advantages and disadvantages.
Plans • Support? • Withdraw?
Topic Analysis To persuade my audience that the state of Iowa should have a mandatory helmet law for motorcyclists. #6. What would be the problem issue here?
Looking Ahead • Topic form on WebCT as soon as you can [due Friday, 8 p.m.] • For next time read “The Problem With Pennies” W pp. 70-71. Find Problem, Plan and Practicality • Due dates: • W p. 51 due Oct. 17 in lab • W. pp. 55-56 due Oct. 22 in lab • Volunteers? I need 3-4 readers for next class.
Persuasive Speaking: Day 2 How do I create and organize persuasive speeches so that they are more convincing?
Problem, Plan and Practicality “The Problem with Pennies”
Sample Speech: “The Problem With Pennies” (volunteer readers) • Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that pennies should be eliminated from the United States money supply. • Central Idea: Because Pennies cause problems for individuals, businesses, and the economy as a whole, they should be eliminated from the U.S. money system.
Introduction: CARRP • Attention: quote with a twist to raise curiosity • Reveal Topic: pennies… “age of the penny is over” • Relate to Audience: “most of you say”…putting questions in their mouths—”what would we do without pennies?” • Credibility: • personal: “I had the same questions when I started work on this speech.” • expert: “as a result of my research I’m convinced” • Preview: “the use of pennies is a costly problem and we can get along fine without them.”
Pattern of Organization? I. Pennies cause serious problems for individuals, businesses and the national economy. [Note the internal preview] II. The federal government should eliminate pennies from the money supply. [Note the signpost: “The plan has 4 steps]” • Problem - Solution
Problem Issue--paragraphs 4-8 • Pennies are a nuisance for individuals. [class survey, U.S. Mint Survey, example of Noel Gunther from the L.A. Times] • Pennies are a nuisance for businesses too. [Fortune magazine, National Association of Convenience Stores] • Pennies are a nuisance for the nation. [stats and testimony from the Treasury Dept., from the U.S. Mint, from U.S. News and World Report]
Plan Issue--paragraphs 10-13 • First step is for the federal government to legalize and standardize rounding off purchases to the nearest nickel. • The next step is to round the sales tax off to the nearest nickel. • The third step is for the mint to stop making pennies. • The fourth step is for people to cash in their pennies removing them from the money supply.
Practicality Issue--mixed in with the plan steps in paragraphs 10-15 • Rounding off purchases: would not cause increased cost to consumers. • Rounding off sales tax: again, no increased cost; it is like rounding off to the nearest dollar on your income tax return. • Stop minting: this will save $80 million a year.
More Practicality • Such a plan has worked in the U.S. before; in 1857 we eliminated the half-penny. • We already practice this plan through the "Leave a Penny, Take a Penny" dishes at check-out counters.
Persuasive Speaking How do I organize persuasive speeches so that they are more convincing?
From “Much Ado About Nothing” • DOGBERRY Marry, sir, they have committed false report; moreover, they have spoken untruths; secondarily, they are slanders; sixth and lastly, they have belied a lady; thirdly, They have verified unjust things; and, to conclude, they are lying knaves.
New Patterns for Persuasive Speeches • Problem-Solution • Problem-Cause-Solution • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence • Comparative Advantages • In rare cases: Topical
Problem-Solution • Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that they should sign universal organ donor cards. • Central Idea: We can take a step toward solving the serious shortage of organ donors in the United States by signing universal organ donor cards. I. There is a serious shortage of healthy organs available for transplant. II. By signing a universal organ donor card you can help solve this problem.
Strategic Benefit • This is a powerful choice. • Something is wrong. [You make us care.] • We can fix it! [You show us what can be done and how we can help.] • Using your Analysis I. Problem = Problem/Need II. Solution = Plan and Practicality
Problem-Cause-Solution • Problem-Cause-Solution is even stronger than Problem-Solution. • If you can isolate the causes and your plan addresses those causes it has built-in practicality impact. • Using your analysis I. Problem = Problem/Need II. Cause = Problem/Need III. Solution = Plan and Practicality
Speech Analysis: Putting the Brakes on Teenage Driving (ch. 15) • Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the age for full driving privileges should be raised to 18. • Central Idea: Raising the age for full driving privileges to 18 will help reduce the large number of accidents and deaths among teenage drivers.
Attention: • story of 16 years olds’ car accident • Credibility • Goodwill—my nephew, I know you oppose such a plan • Expertise—“After researching…experts” • Reveal Topic • “The best way to prevent such accidents…” • Relate to Audience • Audience questionnaire • Preview • Problems associated with teenage driving • The major causes of the problems • A plan that will go a long way to solving those problems.
I. There are too many car accidents, injuries and deaths involving teenage drivers. • There are 4 main causes. A. Inexperience (but we will always have that) B. Undeveloped brains C. Night driving D. Distracted by passengers • My solution has 3 parts. A. Change ages of licensing (responds to brains issue). B. Restrict nighttime driving. (responds to nights arg.). C. Restrict the number of passengers.(responds to concern about passenger distractions).