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Persuasive Speaking. Reflection (name, Lab #, Instructor). What is one thing you learned from the content of the speeches during the Informative round? What is one thing you learned about speech-making by watching others do it?

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reflection name lab instructor
Reflection (name, Lab #, Instructor)
  • What is one thing you learned from the content of the speeches during the Informative round?
  • What is one thing you learned about speech-making by watching others do it?
  • What is one thing you plan to do during the next assignment because of your experience during the informative round?
  • What is something you have been persuaded to do or to think about differently during the past year?
agenda
Agenda
  • What is Persuasive Speaking?
  • What are the requirements for our next assignment?
  • How do I get started?
    • Specific Purposes
    • Policy Speeches (The 3 Ps)
persuasive speaking can be contrasted with informative speaking
Persuasive speaking can be contrasted with informative speaking.
  • The two appear on a continuum.
  • Informative ---------------------- Persuasive
points of contrast
Informative speaking asks the audience for little commitment.

Persuasive speaking asks the audience for major commitment.

Points of Contrast
points of contrast7
Informative Speakers face limited ethical obligations.

Persuasive speakers face extensive ethical obligations.

Points of Contrast
points of contrast9
Informative speeches rarely contain emotional appeals.

Persuasive speeches typically include emotional appeals.

Points of Contrast
one focus of persuasion is the question of fact
One focus of persuasion is the question of fact.
  • Something we can know to be true or false, but right now we can argue about it.
  • Examples include predictions, historical controversy, or questions of existence.
a second focus of persuasion is the question of value
A second focus of persuasion is the question of value.
  • something is right or wrong, moral or immoral, or better or worse than another thing.
  • "To persuade my audience that it is wrong to share downloaded music files."
  • "To persuade my audience that dorms are better than off campus housing."
a third focus of persuasion is the question of policy
A third focus of persuasion is the question of policy.
  • Some action should or should not be taken.
  • “To persuade my audience to donate blood.”
  • “To persuade my audience that the city of Ames should/should not build a parking garage in campus town.”
  • “To persuade my audience to support the expansion of the Children’s Health Insurance Program.”
  • The form is always: "To persuade my audience that X should do Y."
fact value or policy this is ex 2 p 429 in textbook

Fact, Value or Policy?(this is ex. 2 p. 429 in textbook)

1. To persuade my audience to donate time as a community volunteer.

turn it into a fact issue
Turn it into a fact issue
  • To persuade my audience that experience as volunteers will help them on the job market.
turn it into a value issue
Turn it into a value issue
  • To persuade my audience that they have a moral obligation to become community volunteers.
turn it into a different kind of policy
Turn it into a different kind of policy
  • To persuade my audience that the U.S. should adopt a mandatory youth community service program.
fact value or policy
Fact, Value, or Policy?

5. Look at what you wrote for # 4 on the reflection; was it a fact, value or policy issue you were persuaded about? Explain briefly.

[If you have nothing for #4, then tell me what this statement is: “To persuade my audience that violence on television is a major cause of violent behavior in society.” And turn it into a specific purpose statement for a question of policy.]

your assignment see your workbook pp 46 50
Your Assignment See your workbook, pp. 46-50
  • Goals: A Policy Speech
  • Topics: approved, substantial, “controversial” and submitted on WebCT by Friday at 8 p.m.
  • Time: 8 minutes
  • Sources: minimum of 4 strong sources; review guidelines about sources in W pp. 53, 57-58
your assignment
Your Assignment
  • Visual Aid—discretion of lab instructor
  • Extemporaneous delivery
  • Preparation outlines due by workshop—next Tuesday
  • Formal final outline due on speaking day
  • Speaking outline to deliver from
what do i do next

What do I do next?

Persuasive Speech Policy Analysis

one type of persuasive speech aims to gain passive agreement
One type of Persuasive speech Aims to Gain Passive Agreement
  • To persuade my audience that the Iowa legislature should adopt new laws to better protect the victims of domestic abuse.
  • To persuade my audience that the federal government should impose a ban on all advertising for cigarettes and other tobacco products.
the other type of policy speech aims to gain immediate action
The Other Type of Policy Speech Aims to Gain Immediate Action
  • To persuade my audience to volunteer as literacy tutors.
  • To persuade my audience to boycott Nike products.
  • To persuade my audience to participate in the political process beyond voting.
  • To persuade my audience to sign a petition for longer library hours.
central concept from lucas
Central Concept from Lucas

“We often think of persuasion as something a speaker does to an audience. In fact, as a great deal of research shows, persuasion is something a speaker does with an audience” (p. 403).

after topic and goal selection move to analysis
After Topic and Goal Selection; Move to Analysis
  • Arguing to change the status quo.
  • The speaker advocating change has the Burden of Proof
  • The three issues to consider are grounded in theories of human psychology.
the three ps persuasive speech stock issues
The Three Ps:Persuasive Speech Stock Issues
  • 1. The Problem issue refers to what is wrong with the status quo.
  • 2. The Plan issue refers to the solution.
  • 3. The Practicality issue refers to considerations of how well the plan solves the problem and its advantages and disadvantages.
plans
Plans
  • Support?
  • Withdraw?
topic analysis
Topic Analysis

To persuade my audience that the state of Iowa should have a mandatory helmet law for motorcyclists.

#6. What would be the problem issue here?

looking ahead
Looking Ahead
  • Topic form on WebCT as soon as you can [due Friday, 8 p.m.]
  • For next time read “The Problem With Pennies” W pp. 70-71. Find Problem, Plan and Practicality
  • Due dates:
    • W p. 51 due Oct. 17 in lab
    • W. pp. 55-56 due Oct. 22 in lab
  • Volunteers? I need 3-4 readers for next class.
persuasive speaking day 2

Persuasive Speaking: Day 2

How do I create and organize persuasive speeches so that they are more convincing?

problem plan and practicality

Problem, Plan and Practicality

“The Problem with Pennies”

sample speech the problem with pennies volunteer readers
Sample Speech: “The Problem With Pennies” (volunteer readers)
  • Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that pennies should be eliminated from the United States money supply.
  • Central Idea: Because Pennies cause problems for individuals, businesses, and the economy as a whole, they should be eliminated from the U.S. money system.
introduction carrp
Introduction: CARRP
  • Attention: quote with a twist to raise curiosity
  • Reveal Topic: pennies… “age of the penny is over”
  • Relate to Audience: “most of you say”…putting questions in their mouths—”what would we do without pennies?”
  • Credibility:
    • personal: “I had the same questions when I started work on this speech.”
    • expert: “as a result of my research I’m convinced”
  • Preview: “the use of pennies is a costly problem and we can get along fine without them.”
pattern of organization
Pattern of Organization?

I. Pennies cause serious problems for individuals, businesses and the national economy.

[Note the internal preview]

II. The federal government should eliminate pennies from the money supply.

[Note the signpost: “The plan has 4 steps]”

  • Problem - Solution
problem issue paragraphs 4 8
Problem Issue--paragraphs 4-8
  • Pennies are a nuisance for individuals. [class survey, U.S. Mint Survey, example of Noel Gunther from the L.A. Times]
  • Pennies are a nuisance for businesses too. [Fortune magazine, National Association of Convenience Stores]
  • Pennies are a nuisance for the nation. [stats and testimony from the Treasury Dept., from the U.S. Mint, from U.S. News and World Report]
plan issue paragraphs 10 13
Plan Issue--paragraphs 10-13
  • First step is for the federal government to legalize and standardize rounding off purchases to the nearest nickel.
  • The next step is to round the sales tax off to the nearest nickel.
  • The third step is for the mint to stop making pennies.
  • The fourth step is for people to cash in their pennies removing them from the money supply.
practicality issue mixed in with the plan steps in paragraphs 10 15
Practicality Issue--mixed in with the plan steps in paragraphs 10-15
  • Rounding off purchases: would not cause increased cost to consumers.
  • Rounding off sales tax: again, no increased cost; it is like rounding off to the nearest dollar on your income tax return.
  • Stop minting: this will save $80 million a year.
more practicality
More Practicality
  • Such a plan has worked in the U.S. before; in 1857 we eliminated the half-penny.
  • We already practice this plan through the "Leave a Penny, Take a Penny" dishes at check-out counters.
persuasive speaking42

Persuasive Speaking

How do I organize persuasive speeches so that they are more convincing?

from much ado about nothing
From “Much Ado About Nothing”
  • DOGBERRY

Marry, sir, they have committed false report;

moreover, they have spoken untruths;

secondarily, they are slanders; sixth and

lastly, they have belied a lady; thirdly,

They have verified unjust things; and, to

conclude, they are lying knaves.

new patterns for persuasive speeches
New Patterns for Persuasive Speeches
  • Problem-Solution
  • Problem-Cause-Solution
  • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  • Comparative Advantages
  • In rare cases: Topical
problem solution
Problem-Solution
  • Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that they should sign universal organ donor cards.
  • Central Idea: We can take a step toward solving the serious shortage of organ donors in the United States by signing universal organ donor cards.

I. There is a serious shortage of healthy organs available for transplant.

II. By signing a universal organ donor card you can help solve this problem.

strategic benefit
Strategic Benefit
  • This is a powerful choice.
    • Something is wrong. [You make us care.]
    • We can fix it! [You show us what can be done and how we can help.]
  • Using your Analysis

I. Problem = Problem/Need

II. Solution = Plan and Practicality

problem cause solution
Problem-Cause-Solution
  • Problem-Cause-Solution is even stronger than Problem-Solution.
    • If you can isolate the causes and your plan addresses those causes it has built-in practicality impact.
  • Using your analysis

I. Problem = Problem/Need

II. Cause = Problem/Need

III. Solution = Plan and Practicality

speech analysis putting the brakes on teenage driving ch 15
Speech Analysis: Putting the Brakes on Teenage Driving (ch. 15)
  • Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the age for full driving privileges should be raised to 18.
  • Central Idea: Raising the age for full driving privileges to 18 will help reduce the large number of accidents and deaths among teenage drivers.
slide49
Attention:
    • story of 16 years olds’ car accident
  • Credibility
    • Goodwill—my nephew, I know you oppose such a plan
    • Expertise—“After researching…experts”
  • Reveal Topic
    • “The best way to prevent such accidents…”
  • Relate to Audience
    • Audience questionnaire
  • Preview
    • Problems associated with teenage driving
    • The major causes of the problems
    • A plan that will go a long way to solving those problems.
slide50
I. There are too many car accidents, injuries and deaths involving teenage drivers.
  • There are 4 main causes.

A. Inexperience (but we will always have that)

B. Undeveloped brains

C. Night driving

D. Distracted by passengers

  • My solution has 3 parts.

A. Change ages of licensing (responds to brains issue).

B. Restrict nighttime driving. (responds to nights arg.).

C. Restrict the number of passengers.(responds to concern about passenger distractions).

monroe s motivated sequence
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  • Attention
  • Need
  • Satisfaction
  • Visualization
  • Action
monroe s motivated strategic benefit
Monroe’s Motivated Strategic Benefit
  • The pattern of choice for immediate action speeches.
  • Using Your Analysis
    • Attention = Gain Attention in Introduction
    • Need = Problem
    • Satisfaction = Plan
    • Visualization = Practicality
    • Action = Call to Action in Conclusion
outline in workbook p 65
Outline in Workbook p. 65
  • Attention—story in intro
  • Need—Problem issue developed
    • 35,000 people need bone marrow transplant
    • Process is used to treat many diseases
    • 70% of people who need it have no family match to try.
    • 1 in 9 people in need find no match
slide54
Satisfaction
    • Iowa Marrow Donor Program
      • Two donor drives in Nov. and December
      • You can join right here in Ames
    • Process of becoming a Marrow Donor is simple.
    • Increasing the number of people in the registry will help solve the problem.
  • Visualization
    • Jessica’s story [U of I student had a need]
    • Scott’s story [Urbandale man became a donor and saved a life]
  • Action
    • Get registered
    • “take time to become a hero”
comparative advantages
Comparative Advantages
  • For use only when the audience already agrees that there is a problem that needs to be solved.
  • The main points are used to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various plans suggested.
  • It is essentially a process of elimination structure.
comparative advantages using your analysis
Comparative Advantages: Using Your Analysis
  • Intro sets out the Problem: In the Intro do CARRP but also review the Problem
  • Gas prices have risen sharplyReview statsReview percentage of budget for drivers
  • Be sure to include a Preview
  • There are three possible ways to solve this problem, but only one can really work.  Today I will argue that the government should invest its resources to develop alternate fuel technology.
slide57
First part of the Body

I.  Some argue that we should increase our refining capacity.

    • It has been proposed.  [describe the Plan]
    • This won't work. [Practicality]

II. Some argue that we should increase drilling in the U.S.

    • Proposals for drilling in Alaska and for offshore drilling have been made. [Plan]
    • This won't work. [Practicality]
slide58

Internal Summary/Transition:  We all agree that we must take action to deal with the current fuel shortage and high prices.  Increasing refining capacity and new domestic drilling projects have been proposed, but they won’t solve the problem.  Instead, what we must do is….

III. The government should invest its resources in alternative fuel technologies.

    • Specifics of the Plan are covered.
    • It will work and will solve our energy crisis. [Practicality]
  • Conclusion: Call to "action."
alternative comparative advantages format
Alternative Comparative Advantages format:
  • Investing in alternative fuel technologies is a better plan than investing in new refineries because it is the most long term solution for our energy needs.
  • Investing in alternative fuel technologies is a better plan than investing in new refineries because it is more ecologically sound.
  • Investing in alternative fuel technologies is a better plan than investing in new refineries because such investment will have the best impact on the national economy.

Each Main point looks at 2 plans to compare them on one practicality point.

topical pattern see pp 49 50 in the workbook
Topical Pattern [See pp. 49-50 in the workbook.]
  • This pattern might be resorted to when arguing against a change in the status quo.
  • The strategy is essentially one of listing reasons to keep the present system.
  • Problem, Plan and Practicality must still be dealt with.
sample topical pattern
Sample Topical Pattern:
  • Introduction: CARRP+ show that a call for change had been made. [in a sense that call for change is the Problem for the speaker]
  • Body

I. We should not abolish casino gambling in Iowa because no one is being hurt by it.

II. We should not abolish casino gambling in Iowa because it is not an immoral activity.

slide62
III. We should not abolish casino gambling in Iowa because it increases tourism in the state.

IV. We should not abolish casino gambling in Iowa because it is raising money for education.

  • Conclusion: Simply reinforce the case and urge the class to act accordingly.
  • What it is doing is arguing
    • There is no problem with the status quo.
    • The proposed change to the status quo has more disadvantages than advantages. [practicality]
1 what pattern of organization is being used in the following
1. What pattern of organization is being used in the following?

I. Alcohol-related traffic accidents kill more college age people than any other single problem.

II. Drinking and driving is a social problem that is caused by peer pressure, inconsistent laws, and irresponsible actions.

III. You can help combat this problem by taking three simple steps.

2 what pattern of organization is being used in the following
2. What pattern of organization is being used in the following?

I. This nation faces a serious crisis of voter apathy.

II. You must register, study and vote to contribute positively to the process.

III. You must act because in a nation where everyone votes responsibly we would achieve the vision of intelligent discussion of issues and candidates who are held accountable.

3 what pattern of organization is being used in the following
3. What pattern of organization is being used in the following?
  • Lax security in the ISU dorms threatens the safety of undergraduates.
  • Keeping residence hall entrances locked 24-hours a day will make ISU students safer.
4 what pattern of organization is being used in the following
4. What pattern of organization is being used in the following?

I. We could escape the state budget deficit by cutting funding for state services and for state universities.

II. We could escape the state budget deficit by reducing pay to all state employees through furloughs.

III. The best way to escape the state budget deficit is through raising the state’s income taxes.

slide68
5. What are the three issues with which every persuasive speech of policy must deal? (The three things we explore in our analysis of a persuasive issue.)
another example of monroe s motivated sequence analysis of the ultimate gift t pp a15 a17
Another example of Monroe’s motivated Sequence. Analysis of “The Ultimate Gift” (T. pp. A15-A17)
  • ATTENTION STEP
    • In the Introduction
    • Rhetorical questions; you are not donating blood.
  • NEED STEP
    • American Red Cross Web pages say we need 3,000 gallons of blood every hour.
    • Brooke needs blood
    • Only one in 20 of those who could donate actually donate.
monroe s motivated sequence in action
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence in Action
  • SATISFACTION
    • Everyone can be part of the solution by giving blood.
    • The process of blood donation is simple.
    • I was scared the first time, but it was not painful and it was safe.
monroe s motivated sequence in action72
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence in Action
  • VISUALIZATION
    • Every unit of blood you donate can help save three lives.
    • You can help many people—imagine helping to save 180 lives over the next decade!
  • ACTION
    • Become a blood donor
    • Lots of motivational appeals
      • Small price in time
      • There is a shortage; Brooke needs you
      • Go do it!