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Language

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  1. Language

  2. language – “a shared symbolic system used for communication” - Ashcraft (2002) linguistics – language cognitive psychology – cognition psycholinguistics – scientific study of the cognition of language sociolinguistics – social factors

  3. Competence – language knowledge Performance – language behavior Retrieval processes STM capacity Attention

  4. Types of Speech Errors Shift – segment fails to appear in correct place - appears elsewhere She decides to hit it – She decide to hits it Exchange – double shift Hudson and White – Wudson and Hite Anticipation – segment that will appear later also appears earlier Bart Ford – Fart Ford Perseveration – segment occurring earlier also appears later This is a big putt for Tiger Woods – This is a big butt ... Addition – Adding something Carefully enough – Clarefully enough Deleting – leaving something out plastic - plattic Substitution – segment replaced by segment not occurring elsewhere the place opens – the place closes Blend – two intended items are fused fantastic + fabulous = fantabulous

  5. Two fundamental forms of language receptive language – verbal comprehension productive language – verbal fluency

  6. Speech and Comprehension Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area

  7. Broca (1824-1880) Wernicke (1848-1905)

  8. Speech Broca’s Aphasia Interviewer: Were you in the coast guard? Patient: No, er, yes, yes . . . ship . . . Massachu . . . chusetts . . . Coast . . . Guard . . . years. (indicates “19” w/ fingers) Interviewer: Oh, you were in the Coast Guard 19 years? Patient: Oh . . . boy . . . right . . . right. Interviewer: What happened to make you lose your speech? Patient: Head, fall, Jesus Christ, me no good, str, str . . . Oh Jesus . . . stroke. (Gardner, 1975)

  9. Speech Wernicke’s Aphasia Well this . . . mother is away here working her work out o’ here to get her better, but when she’s looking in the other part. One their small tile into her time here. She’s working another time here. She’s working another time because she’s getting too (Goodglass & Geschwind, 1976)

  10. Language Universals 1.Semanticity 2. Arbitrariness onomatopoeia(e.g., buzz, hiss)

  11. Language Universals 1.Semanticity 2. Arbitrariness onomatopoeia 3. Flexibility gay, tight phonograph

  12. Language Universals 1.Semanticity 2. Arbitrariness onomatopoeia 3. Flexibility 4. Naming 5. Displacement 6. Productivity

  13. Animal Communication Honey Bee Waggle Dance

  14. Animal Communication Parrots - Alex green key red paper

  15. Animal Communication Dolphins Take Frisbee hoop Take Frisbee hoop left

  16. Animal Communication Apes Kanzi (bonobo ape) - learned signs from mother - understood spoken English

  17. Separate categories? animal communication human language

  18. Part of same continuum? animal communication human language

  19. Similarities b/w human and animal communication semanticity arbitrariness Differences b/w human and animal communication flexibility and naming productivity displacement

  20. Levels of analysis • 1)phonology • 2) syntax • 3) semantics • Grammar – set of rules capable of generating all acceptable • sentences but no unacceptable sentences

  21. Phonological Grammar - rules that determine how sounds can combine in words ring, sing, ding ngcannot begin a word no /elth/ words

  22. Phonology phoneme – smallest sound that makes a difference phone – the smallest sound spin – [p] – unaspirated pin – [ph] – aspirated

  23. Phonology phonology - the study of how sounds can combine in a language phonetics - the study of language sounds per se approx. 40 phonemes in English

  24. Phonology • phonology - the study of how sounds can combine in a language • phonetics - the study of language sounds per se • articulatory phonetics • place of articulation • i.e., where in vocal tract constriction is greatest

  25. Place of Articulation Bilabial – lips /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/ Labiodental – upper teeth & lower lip /f/, /v/ Dental – tongue & upper teeth /θ/,/ð/ Alveolar – tongue & alveolar ridge /t/, /d,/ /s/, /z/, /n/, /l/ Palatal – tongue and hard palate /∫/, /ჳ/ /t∫/, /dჳ/,/r/, /l/, /j/ Velar – tongue and velum /k/, /g/, /ŋ/ Glottal – way back (vocal cords) /h/

  26. The Implementation of Linguistic Plans Articulation 3 muscle systems supralarangeal

  27. Phonology • phonology - the study of how sounds can combine in a language • phonetics - the study of language sounds per se • articulatory phonetics • place of articulation • i.e., where in vocal tract constriction is greatest • - the manner of articulation • i.e., how airflow is manipulated

  28. Manner of Articulation Obstruction Stop complete /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/ Fricatives incomplete /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/,/θ/, /ð/,/∫/, /ჳ/,/h/ Affricates complete followed by incomplete /t∫/, /dჳ/ Nasals complete at mouth but not nose /m/, /n/ Liquids & Glides incomplete obstruction & vowel-like quality /l/, /r/, w/, /j/

  29. Manner of Articulation Voicing

  30. vowels – sounds that do not have a central obstruction - Chomsky & Halle (1968) types monophtongs – simple vowels diphtongs – vowels that glide from one position to another

  31. vowels characteristics length – duration of vowel height – position of tongue, high, mid, low part of tongue (constriction is greatest) – front, central, back

  32. boo meet mitt book sofa bone mate mutt bought met a cot mat pint = /paInt/ boy = /bეi/ cow= /kaw/

  33. Cognitive Aspects of Speech Production “uhhhhhhhhhhhhh /p/ /a/ /s/”

  34. Meyer (1991) in Dutch – Speech Production 1) 1st phoneme condition 2) rime condition 3) unrelated hut boek hut heks doek doek hiel smoek etc. hoop hoek haard vloek conclusion: phonology to articulation is a serial process RT 1st rime unrelated

  35. Production of Phonemes Coarticulation speak vs.spoon

  36. Acoustic Properties of Speech parallel transmission – aspects of different phones occur over speech signal /tul/ = /t/ + /u/ + /l/ = /tu/ + /tul/ + /ul/

  37. Perception of Phonemes categorical perception-consistency in the perception of phonemes despite variation in sounds Why does this occur? We only notice differences when they are meaningful. [ph]in [p]in pat bat [ph]it [p]it pack back [ph]ill [p]illpin bin

  38. /ba/ /pa/ 100% 50% 0% /pa/ discrimination /ba/ VOT

  39. 2. Top-down processing Warren & Warren (1970) It was found that the *eel (*= coughing sound) 1) was on the axle - wheel 2) was on the shoe - heel 3) was on the orange - peel 4) was on the table - meal phonemic restoration - perceiving phonemes so that they are consistent with the context.

  40. Perception of Phonemes More top-down processing Pollack & Pickett (1964) words in isolation = 47% accuracy

  41. Perception of Phonemes More top-down processing Miller & Isard (1963) - shadowing 1) ungrammatical – Around accidents country honey the shoot 2) grammatical but meaningless – Accidents carry honey between the house 3) grammatical and meaningful – Accidents kill motorists on the highways

  42. Miller & Isard (1963) - shadowing 1) ungrammatical – Around accidents country honey the shoot 2) grammatical but meaningless – Accidents carry honey between the house 3) grammatical and meaningful – Accidents kill motorists on the highways with noise quiet

  43. Perception of Phonemes More top-down processing - when context is not helpful 'Scuse me while I kiss the sky' Jimi Hendrix

  44. Syntactic and Semantic Constraints on Sentence Comprehension

  45. syntax - constraints that determine how words can combine to form sentences

  46. - /pInt/ The PDP Model Context Meaning Spelling Phonology (sound) pint

  47. Word order contributes to meaning fire engine red red fire engine