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  1. Language The Summer Institute for Linguistics (SIL) Ethnologue Survey (2009) lists the following as the top languages by population:(number of native speakers in parentheses) Mandarin Chinese (937,132,000) Spanish (332,000,000) English (322,000,000) Bengali (189,000,000) Hindi/Urdu (182,000,000) Arabic (174,950,000) Portuguese (170,000,000) Russian (170,000,000) Japanese (125,000,000) German (98,000,000) French(79,572,000)

  2. Culture and Language Today: 2 sociologists Concrete Culture-Share artifacts Language Review week 1 Before next week and about Quiz 1

  3. George Herbert Mead1863-1931 • Stated human beings begin their understanding of the social world through play • Published Mind Self Society • Described internal thought processes and conflicts: • I= unpredictable creative aspect of self ( I want to do this!) • Me=conformist aspect of self (You’re making me look bad) • Mind=conversations people have with themselves

  4. Charles Horton Cooley 1864-1929 • Also studied the subject of “the self” • Interested in social interaction • Looking Glass Self: He stated that we form our sense of ourselves by looking in a mirror. • That mirror symbolizes the people that we interact with

  5. Review : Subcultures and counter cultures Culture Subculture: • Culture within larger culture • Has some own values, customs etc, • Shares many values of the larger culture Ex: Youth culture, DJ’s, surfers, doctors Counter culture: • Holds values that stand in opposition to those of the dominant culture Ex: Swingers, gangs, mafia Subculture Counter culture

  6. Assignment 3. Share your cultural artifact. Tell us: • your name • what you brought • what meaning it has for you 2. As people are sharing, record which category of culture you think each item falls under: • Race/ethnicity/nationality • Language • Gender • Socio-economic status • Age • Sports • Religion • Political ideology • Interests/hobbies • Experiences • Family

  7. Your cultural artifacts Culture 1. Highlights a subculture you are part of : • Culture within larger culture • Has some own values, customs etc, • Shares many values of the larger culture 2. Exemplifies concrete/material culture 3. Demonstrates that culture is symbolic (the significance of cultures lies in the meaning it holds for people) Subculture

  8. Language Defined: • A set of symbols that expresses ideas and allows people to think and communicate with each other. • Can be verbal or nonverbal. • Represents not only objects but also abstract thought

  9. Culture and Language • Humans learn and transmit our culture through language

  10. Culture and Language What we say influences what we think what we feel and what we believe What think feel and believe influences what we say

  11. Language guides perceptions There are words that exist in certain languages that do not have a an equivalent in others Examples: • girlfriend/boyfriend doesn’t exist in Urdu • Kuya/Ate(older brother/sister in Tagalog) • Ta’arof- Farsi term referring to etiquette, politeness, cultural obligations doesn’t exist in English

  12. What do these proverbs tell you about what the culture values? • “Lower your voice and strengthen your argument.” (Lebanese proverb) • “Flies never visit an egg that has no crack.” (Chinese proverb) • “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.” (American proverb) Partner Activity. Discuss with 1-2 partners

  13. Maori Proverb (New Zealand) • “E moa i tangata ringa raupa.” • “Marry a man with blistered hands.”

  14. Mexican Proverb • “Anda tu camino sin ayuda de vecino.” • “Walk your own road without the help of a neighbor.”

  15. Nigerian Proverb • "When the brothers fight to the death, a stranger inherits their father's estate.”

  16. Language Moribund (endangered language) • Moribund = spoken only by a few older people and unknown to children • Perhaps as many as 90% of all world languages will be extinct or moribund within the next 100 years • An entire way of thinking is lost each time a language becomes extinct

  17. Endangered Languages • View National Geographic Map of endangered languages • View Enduring Voices Project

  18. Review week 1

  19. What is sociology? The systematic study of human society, social groups, and social interactions

  20. Sociological Imagination/Sociological Perspective C. Wright Mills • Ability to see the many ways society influences our thoughts and actions

  21. Using your sociological imagination Any behavior or belief Sociological Perspective Individual Perspective Focus on influences bigger than one person (the time, place, and culture the individual lives in, and how these factors might influence their beliefs and actions) Focus on someone’s personal characteristics or experiences

  22. Major Theories Structural functionalism sees society as a complex system, parts work together to promote stability Emphasizes the importance of: • Social Functions (what someone or something’s job/role is) • Is something functional or dysfunctional for society? • In other words helpful or harmful?

  23. Major Theories Conflict theory sees society as an arena of inequality Helps sociologists investigate how factors such as • Race • Gender/ethnicity • Class • Age are linked to unequal distribution of resources such as money, power, land, education, social prestige

  24. Major Theories Symbolic Interactionism sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. • Emphasizes that: • Human beings living in a world of symbols and attaching meaning and labels to virtually everything • Emphasizes group influence

  25. Culture Non-material culture Material culture

  26. Summary • View How Beliefs and Values Define a Culture

  27. Before next week • Read chapter 3 and 4 • Quiz 1 Wednesday be on time-class continues after the quiz • Bring a standard 50 question scantron E-882 and pencil • Multiple choice, 15 questions • Study class notes, ppt slides on website, and text reading • Study guide posted on website