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  1. Language • Definition • Numbers • Evolution • Ex: English • Classification • Reconstruction i. Ex: heart • Language trees • Language Families • Paralanguage • Writing • Origins • Diffusion

  2. What is Language?

  3. A Unifying and Dividing force Hebrew, Israel and the Jewish Diaspora • French Language Academy: 1635 (Louis XIII) • 1992 = ban foreign words • 1996 = French = official language Arabic and the Koran

  4. A Dividing Force: • Wallonia: French • Flanders: Flemish (Dutch dialect) • Eastern Wallonia: German

  5. Peace through decentralization

  6. Language in the Caucasus

  7. Nigeria, over 400 Languages spoken

  8. Language • Definition • Numbers • Evolution • Ex: English • Classification • Reconstruction i. Ex: heart • Language trees • Language Families • Paralanguage • Writing • Origins • Diffusion

  9. Language Numbers

  10. Kawaiisu. 8 to 10 (2000 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 35 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More Klamath-Modoc. 1 (1998 N.Y. Times, April 9, p. A20). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 Scott DeLancey). Kuskokwim, Upper. 40 (1995 Krauss). 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (1995 Krauss). More information. Kutenai. 6 in the USA (2002). More information. Luiseño. 30 to 40 (2000 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information. Lushootseed. 60 (1990 M. D. Kinkade). Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1990 M. D. Kinkade). More information. Maidu, Northeast. 1 to 2 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 108 (1990 census). More information. Maidu, Northwest. 3 to 6 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). More information. Mandan. 6 (1992 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 (1986 SIL and 1997 M. Mixco). More information. Menominee. 39. Ethnic population: 3,500 (1977 SIL). More information. Miwok, Central Sierra. 12. Population includes 6 Eastern Central Sierra, 6 Western Central Sierra (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: Possibly 5,000 all Miwok (2000 Yamamoto). More information. Miwok, Lake. 1 to 2 (1994 L. Hinton). More information. Miwok, Northern Sierra. 6 (1994 L. Hinton). More information. Miwok, Plains. 1 (1962 H. Landar in Sebeok 1977). More information. Miwok, Southern Sierra. 7 Southern Central Sierra Miwok (1994 L. Hinton). More information. Mono. 37 to 41 (1994 L. Hinton). Population includes 10 to 12 North Fork, 15 Auberry, 7 to 8 Big Sandy, 5 to 6 Dunlap, no Waksachi. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information. Nisenan. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). More information. Osage. 5 (1991 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 15,000 (1997 Carolyn Quintero). More information. Panamint. 20. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 John E. McLaughlin). More information. Pawnee. 20 (1997 Parks). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1997 Parks). More information. Pomo, Central. 2 to 5 (1997 Mithun). Ethnic population: 4,766 (1997 Mithun). More information. Pomo, Southeastern. 5 (1994 L. Hinton). More information. Pomo, Southern. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). More information. Quapaw. 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1986 SIL). More information. Quileute. 10 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). More information. Salish, Straits. More information. Serrano. 1 (1994 Coker). More information. Snohomish. 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). More information. Tanacross. 35 (1997 G. Holton). Population includes 3 in the Healy Lake dialect, 32 in Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Ethnic population: 120 (1997 G. Holton). More information. Tanaina. 75 (1997 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 900 (1997 M. Krauss). More information. Tanana, Lower. 30 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 380 (1995 M. Krauss). More information. Tolowa. 4 to 5 (1994 Hinton). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 Yamamoto). More information. Tübatulabal. 6. Ethnic population: 900 (2000 Yamamoto). More information. Tuscarora. 4 to 5 in the USA (1997 Mithun). Ethnic population: 1,200 in the USA (1997 Mithun). More information. Tututni. 10 (1962 Chafe). More information. Wasco-Wishram. 69 (1990 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 possibly (1977 SIL). More information. Washo. 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information. Wichita. 3 (2000 Brian Levy). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 David S. Rood). More information. Wintu. 5 or 6 (1997 Shepherd). Ethnic population: 2,244 (1997 Shepherd). More information. Yokuts. 78 speakers of Northern Foothill Yokuts (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More information. Yuchi. 10 to 12 (1997 Mary Linn). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). More information. Yurok. 12 (2002 Goddard). Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,500 possibly (1982 SIL). More US LANGUAGES ON THE VERGE OF EXTINCTION (100+) Achumawi. 10 nonfluent speakers (1997 Nevin). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1997 Bruce Nevin). More Ahtena. 80 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). More information. Apache, Kiowa. 18 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). More information. Apache, Lipan. 2 or 3 (1981 R. W. Young). Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL). More information. Arikara. 20 (1997 Parks). Ethnic population: 3,000. More information. Atsugewi. 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (). Caddo. 25 (1997 Chafe). Ethnic population: 3,371 (1997 W. Chafe). More information. Cahuilla. 7 to 20 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 35 (1990 census). More information. Chetco. 5 (1962 Chafe). Ethnic population: 100 possibly (1977 SIL). More information. Chinook. 12 speakers of Kiksht dialect (1996). Ethnic population: 300 possibly (1977 SIL).. Chinook Wawa. 17 in the USA (1990 census). More information. Clallam. 10 (1997 Timothy Montler). Ethnic population: Several thousands (1997 T. Montler). Coeur d'Alene. 5 (1999 R. McDonald). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). More information. Coos. 1 or 2 (1962 Chafe). Ethnic population: 250 (1977 SIL). More information. Degexit'an. 20 to 30 (1997 Sharon Hargus). Ethnic population: 250 to 300 (1997 M. Krauss). More Eyak. 1 (1996 N. Barnes). Ethnic population: 50 (1995 M. Krauss). More information. Gros Ventre. 10 (1977 SIL). Very few semispeakers in 2000 (2001 Goddard). Ethnic population: Haida, Northern. 15 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 600 in the Han. 7 or 8 in Alaska (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 14. Ethnic population: 300. More information. Hawai'i Pidgin Sign Language. A few users out of about 6,000 profoundly deaf people in Hawaii (1987 Honolulu Star-Bulletin), 72,000 deaf or hard-of-hearing people in Hawaii (1998 Honolulu Advertiser). More information. Holikachuk. 12 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 200 (1995 M. Krauss). More Hupa. 8 (1998 Brook). Ethnic population: 2,000. More information. Kalapuya. 1 or 2 (1962 Chafe). More information. Kansa. 19 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 250 (1986 SIL). More information. Karok. 10 (1997 William Bright). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto). More Kashaya. 45 (1994 L. Hinton). More information.

  11. Around 900 native languages spoken by the 5-10 million people of New Guinea and its neighboring islands.  That is roughly 1/6 of all languages being spoken by far less than 1% of the world's people. 

  12. Exonyms: name of language given by outside group

  13. Nigerian Pidgin: CAMERON Translation: Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

  14. CREOLE LANGUAGES

  15. English has flourished at the expense of other ethnic group’s languages Remaining Navajo Speakers

  16. Language • Definition • Numbers • Evolution • Ex: English • Classification • Reconstruction i. Ex: heart • Language trees • Language Families • Paralanguage • Writing • Origins • Diffusion

  17. Language Diffusion and Evolution

  18. Example: English

  19. English history Celts (2000 BC) Romans (AD 40-400)

  20. English history Germanic speaking people (5th century AD)

  21. English history Vikings (9th century AD)

  22. Beowulf spoke, the son of Ecgtheow: "Sorrow not, wise warrior. It is better for a man to avenge his friend than much mourn. Each of us must await his end of the world's life. Let him who may get glory before death: that is best for the warrior after he has gone from life. Arise, guardian of the kingdom, let us go at once to look on the track of Grendel's kin. I promise you this: she wHi not be lost tinder cover, not in the earth's bosom nor in the mountain woods nor at the bottom of the sea, go where she will. This day have patience in every woe— as I expect you to."

  23. Middle English1100-1500

  24. Impact of Borrowing Other origins • Alcohol • Arabic • Khaki • Persian • Ketchup • Chinese • Cookie • Dutch • Jerky • Quecha • Chocolate • Nahuatl • Vodka • Russian • Noodle • German • Tattoo • Tahitian • Yogurt • Turkish • Geyser • Icelandic • Balcony • Italian • Whiskey • Gaelic • Smorgasbord • Swedish • Genius • Latin • Aroma • Greek • Pal • Romany • Paprika • Hungarian

  25. Dialects