What is language? • Language vs. communication • Why do we say that bees do not have a “language?” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7ijI-g4jHg Image taken from the Yamada Bee Farm site
Requirements for Language • Regular (grammar) “Twasbrillig, and the slithytoves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: • Productive
Other Characteristics of Language • Arbitrariness • Discreteness • http://dmc.ohiolink.edu/cgi/i/image/getimage-idx?viewid=LILI2.MOV;cc=forglv;entryid=x-lili2;view=image
The structure of language • Phoneme map tap /m/ /t/ map mash /m/ /š/
The structure of language • Phonetic ambiguity • Ream ember us poke can cent tense off in contains men knee word knot in ten did tube bee herd.
Problems with understanding speech perception - Phonemes can sound different in different contexts
The structure of language • Speech Perception • Speech is categorical • Phonological rules
The structure of language Un- • Morphemes strange -ed a- the
The structure of language • Syntax Tree diagram
Tree diagrams of Sentences 5 through 8. Preposing
The structure of language • Context Effects • Words that fit sentence The Eskimos were frightened by the walrus. The bankers were frightened by the walrus. • Lexical ambiguity • Understand truth conditions
The structure of language • Garden path sentences • The cotton shirts are made from comes from Arizona.
The structure of language • Sentence comprehension • Experiment: • With this possibility, Taylor left the capital. After he had returned to Manhattan, he explained the offer to his wife. • Taylor did not reach a decision until after he had returned to Manhattan. He explained the offer to his wife.
Language Comprehension & Production • Sentence comprehension • What is happening when we experience ambiguity ? • All meanings of ambiguous words are available at first, but this period is very short
The structure of language • Semantics • A theory of semantics (meaning) must explain: • Anomaly • Self-contradiction • Ambiguity • Synonymy • Entailment
The structure of language • Pragmatics • Types of utterances • Assertives • Directives • Commissives • Expressives • Declarations
Levels of Language • Phonemes • Morphemes • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics