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Language. A language is a system, used for communication, comprising a set of arbitrary symbols and a set of rules by which the manipulation of these symbols is governed. These symbols can be combined productively to convey new information, distinguishing languages from other forms of communication. .

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    1. Language Beatrice, Saysavanh, Viktoria Ivanova, Hang Dang

    2. Language A language is a system, used for communication, comprising a set of arbitrary symbols and a set of rules by which the manipulation of these symbols is governed. These symbols can be combined productively to convey new information, distinguishing languages from other forms of communication.

    3. Styles of communication Styles of communication vary according to the culture: Culture Context Verbal communication Non verbal communication

    4. Process of communication

    5. Process of communication Differences in codes, encodages & decodages Cultural preferences for some medias (ex. written vs. oral, verbal vs. non-verbal) for some messages Style of retrospective increase is very cultural (people filter information from past experience) Significant increase of the level of the sound Perceived distance increase Potential misunderstanding increase

    7. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION includes facial expressions, tones of voice, gestures, eye contact, spatial arrangements, patterns of touch, expressive movement, cultural differences, and other "nonverbal" acts. Research suggests that nonverbal communication is more important in understanding human behavior than words alone--the nonverbal "channels" seem to be more powerful than what people say. Gestures and body positioning Eye contact Facial Expressiveness Conversation distance

    8. Culture differencies Cultures differ in the meaning of slang, even if people think they're speaking the same language. The role of the human face in emotions, cultural differences, attractiveness, identity, facial mythology, cosmetic surgery, aging, law enforcement, etc. The power of the voice (verbal + nonverbal) in interpersonal communication emphasizes the way we interpret a speaker's voice in terms of accent, pronunciation, emotions, honesty, sarcasm, charisma, uniqueness, lifestyle, and geographic origin.

    9. Culture differencies Pay attention to the expression of angry gestures, obscene gestures, friendly gestures, warning gestures, the development of gestures in children, gang gestures, secret gestures, and embarrassing gestures. This powerful form of nonverbal communication varies across cultural and national boundaries.

    10. Business communication The business communication supposes the knowledge of the rules of etiquette and characteristics of the different countries languages. International differences in gestures, and cultural differences in nonverbal communication might be expected. Differences affect our ability to understand people from different cultures. English is recognised Language skills allow to better perceive another culture. Internationalization of business depends on language skills of managers.

    11. Language in Business Verbal language: Business letter Memos Emails Non-verbal language: Pay attention to the expression of angry gestures obscene gestures friendly gestures warning gestures secret gestures, and embarrassing gestures, ect. The power of the voice (verbal + nonverbal) Dress code

    12. France

    13. French language 210 million people speak French Spoken in 55 countries Latin language Cartesian spirit

    14. Verbal aspects Academic language Diplomacy and respect Vous/ tu Politeness Importance of graduation French norm: unsaid, undercurrent, tease Vertical relation

    15. Non verbal aspects Movement of hand The significance of smile Take distance Multiple listenning

    16. French in business Take care of: work area, hand movement, appearance No direct relation, vertical relation The other is a foreigner Start with negative point Always a but

    17. Russia

    18. Russian language Russian (russkiy yazyk) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia.

    19. Russian language The closest relatives are Ukrainian and Belarusian. Official recognition and legality: Latvia, Estonia, Luthuania (1/10), Finland (0.6%) Old generations in Poland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Albania It was tought in some Asian countries: Laos, Vietnam and Mongolia Israel: press and web site North America and Western Europe Education in Russian: 75% in Belarus, 41% in Kazakhstan, 25% in Ukraine, 23% in Kyrgyzstan, 21% in Moldova, 7% in Azerbaijan, 5% in Georgia and 2% in Armenia and Tajikistan

    20. Russian verbal language Close distance High tone of voice Very expressive Direct The "patronymic" name based on the first name of the father. For women it is "OVNA" or "EVNA" is added to the patronymic name instead of "OVICH" for men. Between family, good friends and colleagues, and sometime subordinates, the Christian name is modified to a "pet" name, e.g. Alexander = Sasha; Ludmila = Mila, Vladimir = Vova, Evgueniy = Geniya. In formal situations, "vy" is used, "ty" is used between friends, etc.

    21. Russian non verbal language A firm handshake is the common form of greeting & parting Tactile (smart kiss close relationship) Open greeting with good eye contact Friendly gestures Clothes: strict, elegant, bright colours (Skirts for women), Russia is still a country of formalityfor men a shirt, tie, jacket, etc in darker, conservative tones is still the required uniform for offices and at formal occasions. Russian women, especially younger ones, dress very fashionably, although in some instances somewhat more provocatively. Make up

    22. Russian culture Russians are formal with all new contacts and especially so with foreigners Once the newcomer is accepted affection (hugging, or be verbal with extreme complimentary toasts and speeches about the chosen person(s). Although Russian businesses are becoming more like those in West, decision making still reflects old style: top down.

    23. Russian culture Dictatorial style of management Generally, women are not regarded or treated as equals to men and most hold lower level jobs compared to men. Russian women are often described as "The neck of Russia". Supporting the head and brains (men) but determine where the head looks!! Flowers are very popular gifts for men & womenlarge bouquets are presented for all kinds of celebrations, including birthdays, jubilees, name days for women (Vera, Luba, Nadia, etc). The count of flowers is importantan even number is unlucky (for funerals); odd numbers of flowers should be given for all other occasions.

    24. Recommendations Avoid shaking hands across a doorway - bad luck There is a tendency to give the listener what he wants to hear For most Russians the personal relationship comes first & then the business relationship. This would include participating in office celebrations for birthdays, jubilees etc., where staff sits around and talk, drink & toast. Also, Russians like to entertain at home. If invited, this would be an ideal opportunity to build a relationship. The guest should take a small gift of flowers, food or alcohol.

    25. Recommendations For clients, restaurant dining, usually in the evening, is a good icebreaker. It is not usual among older Russians to include spouse in such entertaining While Russians can sometimes appear gruff & unsmiling, the foreign visitor should stay calm & smiling but reinforce points in strong voice, when appropriate. Russians respect strength. To address with Russians, with whom one is not close, with pet name, is not considered polite.

    26. Laos

    27. How many people speak Lao? A bit over six million within the country Another half of million outside the country

    28. Lao Originated from Lao the Tai language family The writing system evolved from Sanskrit Lack of harmonization within dialects Quite Monotonage and simplistic Not close distance Not expressive Warm

    29. Verbal Language Distance: - one arm length and touching is - considered disrespectful - sitting with their legs folded to the side of them

    30. Verbal Language Tone of voice: - Quiet and undemonstrative - A nervous tone of voice might be considered as a sign of dishonesty Intonation: - Very monotonage Influences from other languages: French: Cadeau

    31. Non Verbal Language Greeting: Sabidee Eye contact: Not important Addressing: as an uncle or brother is more preferred Dress code: traditional skirts (women)

    32. Vietnam

    33. WELCOME TO VIETNAMESE Tram nam, trong ci ngu?i ta, Ch? ti, ch? m?nh, kho l ght nhau

    34. VERBAL LANGUAGE Overview From 111BC to 13th century: Classical Chinese From the 13th to 15th century: Chinese characters were adapted to write native Vietnamese words. From the 15th century: Roman Catholic missionaries introduced a system of writing Vietnamese in the Latin alphabet

    35. VERBAL LANGUAGE 1. Genetic relationship Chinese cultural influence. Mon-Khmer stock, which comprises Mon (spoken in Burma) and Khmer (the language of Cambodia) Nagpur plateau of India, in the west, to the Indo-Chinese peninsula in the east.

    36. VERBAL LANGUAGE 2. Writing Systems There are three distinct writing systems: The Chinese characters The demotic characters derived from Chinese The Roman script 6 accents: (falling tone), (high tone), ?, (tilde), ? (drop tone) More characters: a, , d, , o, u

    37. VERBAL LANGUAGE 2. High context society Empathizes spiral logic Values indirect verbal interaction and is more able to read nonverbal expressions Tends to use more feeling in expression Tends to give simple, ambiguous, non contexting messages

    38. VERBAL LANGUAGE 3. Personal pronoun Example: Anh yu em. Older-brother love younger-sibling. can be translated as: I love you. (male to female). You love me. (female to male). He loves her. (rare) Be carefully assess the social relationship between him/her and the audience, difference in age, and sex of the audience to choose an appropriate form of address.

    39. VERBAL LANGUAGE 4. Names Family name: positioned first, is passed on by the father to his children Middle name: more correctly, intercalary name Given name: the primary form of address for Vietnamese Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name, "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary Example Nguy?n T?n Dung is the current Prime Minister of Vietnam. Nguy?n is his family name, T?n is his middle name, and Dung is his given name. In formal usage, he is referred to by his given name ("Mr. Dung"), not by his family name ("Mr. Nguyen").

    40. NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE Bowing: Is to show greeting and to show great respect Avoiding eye contact: Is to show respect to people older in age and of the opposite sex. Smiling: Is another way to show agreement, embarrassment, disbelief, mild disagreement, appreciation and apology. Shaking hands: Friendly greeting between men (but not the elderly). Not customary between women or between a Vietnamese woman and non Vietnamese man Pointing to other people while talking. Patting a persons back, especially someone senior in age or status: It is considered very disrespectful/ familiar Pointing to other people while talking: Is disrespectful and consider to be threatening. Putting ones feet on a table or sitting on a desk while talking: rude

    41. NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE In Meeting Acceptable distance: This depends on the type of meeting. In a formal gathering, people shake hands. Vietnamese maintain a certain distance with strangers. However, in a public setting you should expect to be cramped, bumped into, or share a bench with a lot of other people, etc. It is very rare that Vietnamese greet by kissing one another on the cheek (like the French) even if they know one another very well; regardless of gender they will offer to shake hands. Eye contact: It is not polite to make direct eye contact with someone; the first time you meet someone, he/she will likely tend to look down at the ground unless he/she is your superior. They have facial expressions that are somewhat difficult to read. Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to see people become enraged or raise their voices, particularly when a superior is talking to a junior employee. Since nobody wants to lose face, meetings appear to remain rather superficial and many discussions take place behind the scenes, but usually in the end everyone comes to a mutually acceptable settlement.

    42. NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE In Dress Vietnamese are very conservative and appearances are very important to them. First and foremost, they judge someone by his/her appearance. It is essential to always be dressed appropriately. This does not mean that you should always look elegant because oftentimes clothing that we like is not pleasing to our Vietnamese colleagues. For men it is quite acceptable to wear dark pants, a white shirt and tie (or in the North a suit during the winter). Women wear pants (most ride a bicycle or motorcycle to get to work or to the market) or long skirts/dresses with sleeves. Some Westerners wear the ao dai, the traditional Vietnamese outfit consisting of a tunic and slacks, but personally I do not find it to be very comfortable (as it is very fitted and often made of synthetic materials). At the beach foreigners wear shorts. You should always be polite and diplomatic; however, normally an interpreter is involved and the conversation will depend, to a large extent, on the quality of the interpretation. If possible, it is recommended to have your own personal interpreter and to hire someone who knows the intricacy of both languages. It is best to do a reference check on your interpreter since he/she will be the link between you and your partner or client.

    43. Quiz

    44. What does it mean in japanese nonverbal language?

    45. What does it mean in french language? I dont beleive you! You are crazy! I have problems with my eyes! We will see who is right!

    46. What does it mean in Tunis? Everything is ok! Good luck! Ill kill you! Our result is zero

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