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Memory. The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. How good are you are remembering faces?. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/tmt/instructions_1.shtml. Going to the beach…. Strategies to help remember retrieval cues: faces, alphabet

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slide1

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

how good are you are remembering faces

How good are you are remembering faces?

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/tmt/instructions_1.shtml

going to the beach
Going to the beach…
  • Strategies to help remember
    • retrieval cues: faces, alphabet
    • mnemonics: visual imagery
    • schema: typical things one takes
    • category clustering/chunking: animals, fruits, games
    • rehearsal: earlier times more easily remembered
    • effortful processing: attention & conscious effort
  • Factors that inhibited retrieval
    • emotional interference: feelings
    • Absent-mindedness: item preceding, thinking of what to say
    • lack of repetition: only heard word once
    • interference: personal associations
    • Serial position effect: words in the middle?
schemas
Schemas

mental model of an object or event that includes knowledge as well as beliefs and expectations. 

  • Suppose a high school junior visits her sister’s college dorm room for the first time.
  • She’s never been to a dorm before, but she’s seen dorms in movies, read about them, and heard her friends talking about them.
  • When she describes the room to another friend after the visit, she comments on how many clothes her sister had and how many huge books were on her sister’s desk.
  • In reality, the books were hidden under the bed, not out in the open. The clothes were something she actually saw, while the books were part of her dorm-room schema.
chunking process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
UM

TDOL

S I K U H E

L R I N A P A E

S N I Y R V T I E U

B A Q S I E N U O E T L

UM

TOLD

HUSKIE

AIRPLANE

UNIVERSITY

QUESTIONABLE

ChunkingProcess of grouping items to make them easier to remember
chunking
Chunking
  • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
  • Often it will occur automatically.

Take 10 seconds to try to remember this number list:

1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1

Chunk- from Goonies

Now, try again:

1492, 1776, 1812, 1941

What are some other examples of chunking?

memory 3 processes
MEMORY- 3 processes
  • Encode…take in, acquire
    • YOU MUST PAY ATTENTION
  • Store…retain
  • Retrieve…bring into consciousness
encoding
Encoding
  • processing of information into the long-term storage.

Typing info into a computer

Getting a guys/girl’s name at a party

storage
Storage
  • The retention of encoded material over time.

Trying to remember his/her name when you leave the party.

Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.

retrieval
Retrieval
  • The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

Seeing her the next day and calling him/her the wrong name (retrieval failure).

Finding your document and opening it up.

stage model of memory
Stage Model of Memory

Level of processing

(deep vs. shallow)

elaborative reh & effortful processing

chunking.

mneumonics.

self referencing

visual imagery

overlearning

maintenance rehearsal

Sensory Memory

STM

LTM

attention

decay theory /transience

Interference-

retro vs. pro active

Repression

suppression

retrieval cues

stage model of memory1
STAGE MODEL of Memory…
  • Sensory memory-exact copy
    • Iconic
    • Echoic
  • Short term memory-working memory
    • + 7 bits of info
    • Phonetically
    • Sensitive to interruption or interference
  • Long term memory-permanent storehouse
    • Meaningful, important
    • Endless storage capacity
    • Semantic network model (organized & connected through association and clustering)
attention

ATTENTION!!!!

Memory: hippocampus

Once forged, disassembled into various sensory components

Distributed throughout brain

Later, when you think of person components are drawn together again.

encoding getting information in what we encode
Encoding: Getting Information In… What We Encode
  • Levels of Processing
    • Visual encoding- see
    • Acoustic encoding- hear
    • Semantic encoding- meaning
  • Self-reference effect-make it meaningful to you!

“I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.”

– Confucius

tricks to encoding
Tricks to Encoding

Mnemonic Devices = memory tricks

  • Often use imagery (peg word, method of loci, “hippo on campus…”)
  • May use chunking (King Philip Came Over for Great Spaghetti, SOHCOHTOA, My very earnest mother just served us nine [pizzas], ROY G. BIV)

Give me some more examples….

Links to examples of mnemonic devices.

mnemonic devices
Mnemonic devices
  • Acronyms
    • FACE
  • Narrative
    • Make a story
  • Method of loci
    • Visualize items in a large bizarre way
types of encoding processing
Types of Encoding Processing

Automatic

Effortful

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

Can become automatic through practice

  • Unconscious encoding of incidental information
  • Sequence of days events
  • Parallel processing
    • (brain property)
encoding getting information in automatic processing
Encoding: Getting Information In: Automatic Processing
  • Space
    • You can picture where the information is in the book
  • Time
    • You can retrace the steps of your day
  • Frequency
    • Didn’t I just see you in the halls?
  • Well-learned Language
    • You can read without actually reading
    • Parallel processing
encoding getting information in
Encoding: Getting Information In

Effortful processing:

  • Rehearsal (conscious repetition)
    • Elaborative vs. maintenance rehearsal
  • Learning curve: gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as a result of learning
  • Ebbinghaus: forgetting curve ~ decline of retention over time
encoding getting information in1
Encoding: Getting Information In
    • Overlearning- Reviewing things you already know, enhances retention.
    • Spacing effect-
    • We increase long-term retention when we study or practice over time.
    • Massed practice vs. Distributed practice
    • Don’t CRAM!
  • Testing effect- repeated quizzing increases recall
  • Answering practice test questions about material you have studied is a useful strategy for becoming aware of what you do not yet know~
serial position effect
Serial position effect

Dog

Red

Cow

Food

Egg

New

Toy

Tape

Test

Box

Book

Year

House

Box

Light

Fart

Game

Ring

Flower

Water

Music

serial positioning effect
Serial Positioning Effect
  • REMEMBER WORDS: tend to remember beginning & end of a list best.
    • Primacy effect
    • Recency effect
    • Primacy effect is stronger than recency effect if there is a delay between the list and recall.
  • FORGET MIDDLE
    • Unless…?

Words remembered

Order on list

storage retaining information sensory memory
Storage: Retaining information ~Sensory Memory
  • George Sperling
    • Iconic
      • Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
  • Echoic Memory
    • Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
      • If you were listening…

repeat what I just said…

george sperling sensory memory
George Sperling: Sensory Memory

Q J B

S R G

Z A I

W F H

slide26
Q J B W
  • S R G F
  • Z A I H
slide27

bed

  • rest
  • awake
  • tired
  • dream
  • wake
  • snooze
  • blanket
  • doze
  • slumber
  • snore
  • nap
  • peace
  • yawn
  • drowsy

Remember these words

slide28

Jury

  • Oath
  • Judge
  • Courtroom
  • Plea
  • Attorney
  • Law
  • Crime
  • Guilty
  • Robe
  • Defendant
  • Innocent
  • Sentence
  • Prosecutor
  • Witness
  • Jail
  • Duty

Remember these words

slide29

Debrief

How many of you listed LAWYER?

Memory = active reconstruction

*When trying to recall, we create a schema and fill in what we think belongs

*serial position effect

-primacy

-recency

Memory also suffers from MISINFORMATION EFFECT

slide31

DIRECTIONS.

AS EACH WORD FLASHES COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS IN THE WORD.

slide33

DIRECTIONS.

AS EACH WORD FLASHES, DECIDE IF THE ITEM WOULD BE USEFUL AT COLLEGE.

slide34

DEBRIEF

Side A told: count the number of letters in each word.

Side B told: which items could you use at college?

Side B made use of…

a) Elaborative rehearsal

b) Self-reference effect

c) Visual imagery

slide36

DIRECTIONS.

AS EACH WORD FLASHES COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS IN THE WORD.

slide37
REFRIGERATOR

PLIERS

CUPCAKES

LICENSE

BOOKS

STRING

RULER

STEREO

PHOTOGRAPH

COMPUTER

SHOVEL

CARROT

SHOES

PHONE

WALLET

PAINT

slide39

DIRECTIONS.

AS EACH WORD FLASHES, DECIDE IF THE ITEM WOULD BE USEFUL AT COLLEGE.

slide40
REFRIGERATOR

PLIERS

CUPCAKES

LICENSE

BOOKS

STRING

RULER

STEREO

PHOTOGRAPH

COMPUTER

SHOVEL

CARROT

SHOES

PHONE

WALLET

PAINT

slide41

DEBRIEF

Side A told: count the number of letters in each word.

Side B told: which items could you use at college?

Side B made use of…

a) Elaborative rehearsal

b) Self-reference effect

c) Visual imagery

breakdown of long term memory explicit implicit declarative semantic episodic procedural
Breakdown of Long Term Memory Explicit & Implicit Declarative Semantic Episodic Procedural
declarative conscious
Semantic-

Names of objects

Days / weeks

Simple math skills

Mental dictionary, encyclopedia of basic knowledge

-impersonal objects

-hippocampus

Episodic-

Autobiographical record of personal experiences.

Stores life’s events

*more easily forgotten

Declarative - conscious
procedural unconscious
Procedural -unconscious
  • know how
    • Learned actions/skills
    • Automatic
    • Unconscious retention
    • cerebellum
    • Easy retrieval
declarative
Declarative
  • Factual information
  • Expressed in words or symbols
  • Names, faces, words, ideas
  • Divided into…
name the seven dwarfs
Name the seven dwarfs

Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy

Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy

Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful

Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Lazy

Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful

Teach Shorty Nifty Happy

Doc Wheezy Stubby Snoopy

seven dwarves
Seven Dwarves

Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful

slide51

Do you know someone like this?

Do you prefer a RECALL or RECOGNITION TEST?

Why?

demonstrating memory
Recall

Bring information out from long term memory with little or no clues!

Explain answers

Essay

Recognition

Pick out correct answer from a list.

Choices provided to aid in memory

Multiple choice

Demonstrating Memory
what down the numbers 1 6
What down the numbers 1-6

Fill in the blanks

* Indicate primed words

LOTION*

HAPPY*

WIZARD

ISOLATED

METHOD*

SPARKLE

  • L _ _ I _ N
  • H _ P _ Y
  • W I _ _ R _
  • I _ O _ A T _ D
  • M _ _ H _ D
  • S _ _ R _ L _
when doing memory demos why do i have you stand up and count backwards by 3 s
When doing memory demos, why do I have you stand up and count backwards by 3’s?

To prevent rehearsal

Interference: think of past episodic memory

transfer of training
Transfer of Training
  • Positive transfer:
    • learning one task carries on to another
  • Negative transfer:
    • knowledge of previous task does not carry to another
      • interference due to differences
interference
Interference

Proactive: old info gets in the way of remembering new info.

Time 1

Time 2

Test

Interference

Recall French

French

Spanish proactively interferes

Spanish

interference1
Interference
  • Retroactive: new info gets in the way of old info.

Time 1

Time 2

Test

Interference

Recall Spanish

French

French retroactively interferes

Spanish

mnemonic device for interference
Mnemonic Device for Interference

P- proactive interference

O- old gets in way of new

R- retroactive interference

N- new gets in way of old

http://courses.missouristate.edu/timothybender/mem/mydemos.html#recent

chemical influence on memory
CHEMICAL INFLUENCE on memory
  • Stimulants: increase brain chemicals
    • Rapid learning
    • Increase learning to an extent
      • Too much stimulant…hinders learning
  • Depressants: decrease firing of cells
    • Reduces learning

Emotional Factors…

encoding specificity principle
Encoding Specificity Principle

~cues present at recall are similar to those present during encoding.

  • Context effect
  • State-dependent retrieval
  • Mood congruence
    • Angry at significant other?
      • Remember details of all other times angry
  • Victim returning to crime scene
amnesia
Amnesia
  • Causes:
    • Blow to the head, brain damage, drug use, psychological trauma
    • Case of H.M.—part medial temporal lobe including parts of the hippocampus implicit memories, but no explicit
  • Types
    • Infantile amnesia: can’t remember first few years…WHY?
      • encoding specificity principle—too many differences between infant world and adult world—you can’t retrieve
      • brain development of hippocampus—can’t make episodic memories, can make procedural ones;
        • Some believe the hippocampus does not mature until 2yrs
forms of amnesia
AnterogradeForms of Amnesia

Retrograde

Inability to retrieve or recall information before the traumatic event.

Lose episodic

Cannot remember events from the past

An individual cannot retain any information after the traumatic event.

Cannot form new memories

50 First Dates

biology of memory
Biology of Memory
  • Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
    • An increase in a synapse’s firing after brief, rapid stimulation.
    • Provides a basis for memory and learning
  • Hippocampus
    • Processes Explicit (Declarative) Memories
      • Colateralization
  • Cerebellum
    • Processes Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memories
storage retaining information storing memories in the brain
Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain
  • Synaptic Changes
    • Memory trace
    • Long-term potentiation (LTP)
    • Memory boosting drugs
      • CREB
      • glutamate
source amnesia confusion
Source Amnesia / Confusion
  • Not accurately remember the source of the info
    • (misattribution effect): memories are reconstructed from many sources—the last time you told the story, things you have seen on TV, conversations with friends
  • After witnessing a car crash on the freeway, Sam later tells friends many details about what he saw.
  • It turns out, however, that there is no way he could have actually seen some of the details he described and that he is, in fact, just reporting details he heard on TV about the accident.
  • He isn’t deliberately lying. He just may not be able to remember where all the different pieces of information came from.
eyewitness identification
Eyewitness Identification
  • Elizabeth Loftus& (Gary Wells)
  • Memory can be influenced by both suggestion & future info
    • memories are malleable & changeable
    • FRAMING:subtle influences in how a question is worded can alter a person’s memory of an event, or judgment of a situation...leading to FALSE MEMORIES!
    • Misinformation Effect: Post-event information distorts memory.
  • http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/faculty/gwells/homepage.htm
slide69

Elizabeth Loftus: eyewitness testimony & framing

Why jury cannot leave/talk with outside sources

Examples

1. “90% survive this surgery.” VS. “10% die from this surgery.”

2.) Half class received one or the other following statistic:

“95% success rate for condom preventing HIV.” OR

“5% failure rate...”

If presented with the 1st statistic, 90% students said condoms are effective

If presented with the second statistic: 40% said condoms are effective.

storage retaining information storing memories in the brain1
Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain

Stress Hormones & Memory

    • Emotions & memories
  • Flashbulb memory
  • Facilitated by the body’s release of stress hormones
  • Vivid memory
  • Confidence great; memory not any better
  • Can be distorted by misinformation
discerning true false memories
Discerning True & False Memories
  • Memory studies
  • Being asked to explain why a previously observed stranger was feeling angry, influenced a person’s perceptual memory of that person’s facial expression.
  • Children’s Eyewitness Recall
    • Children’s memories of abuse
      • Suggestibility
biological basis of memory
Biological basis of Memory
  • Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
    • Functional & structural changes in neurons
    • An increase in the strength synapse’s firing & connections in a memory
  • Hippocampus
    • Processes Explicit
      • Declarative Memories
      • Colateralization
  • Cerebellum
    • Processes Implicit
      • Nondeclarative Memories
lashley
Lashley
  • Quest for physical basis of memory – ENGRAM
    • Memory trace
    • Synaptic changes
  • Rats learn maze…
  • remove pieces of cortex…
  • storage of memories is NOT LOCALIZED
    • NOT restricted to specific regions.
sustained physical abuse impact
Sustained physical abuse impact~
  • Inhibits long-term memory formation
  • Shrinks hippocampus
memory and alzheimer s
Memory and Alzheimer's…

Can the language we use offset Alzheimer's?

  • NPR alzheimers Agatha Christie and Nun study
slide76

Amnesia hippocampus

  • Engram-distributed
  • Rabbits classical conditioning-localized
  • Sensory Memory
  • Forgetting curve nonsense syllables
  • Long term potentiation (aplysia)

Lashley

Ebbinghaus

Sperling

Thompson

Kandel

H.M.

schemas and constructive memory the rumor chain
Schemas and Constructive Memory: The Rumor Chain
  • Leveling: simplifying material…story gets progressively shorter as some nondistinctive details are excluded.
  • Semantic Encoding: generalization, stereotyping.
  • Schema: mindset, organized pattern.
  • Sharpening: highlighting or overemphasizing some details.
  • Constructive processing/ confabulation: addition of detail, reconstruct the memory.
  • Assimilation: changing details to better fit the subject’s own background or knowledge.
  • TOT: inability to retrieve all info from memory…bits
improving memory techniques
Improving Memory Techniques
  • Study repeatedly
  • Make the material meaningful
  • Activate retrieval cues
  • Use mnemonic devices
  • Minimize interference
  • Sleep more (sleep consolidates memories)
  • Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know
how to fail a class
How to Fail a Class
  • http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~mco5/How%20To%20FAIL%20A%20Class.ppt