Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Memory PowerPoint Presentation

Memory

219 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Memory

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

  2. How good are you are remembering faces? http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/tmt/instructions_1.shtml

  3. Going to the beach… • Strategies to help remember • retrieval cues: faces, alphabet • mnemonics: visual imagery • schema: typical things one takes • category clustering/chunking: animals, fruits, games • rehearsal: earlier times more easily remembered • effortful processing: attention & conscious effort • Factors that inhibited retrieval • emotional interference: feelings • Absent-mindedness: item preceding, thinking of what to say • lack of repetition: only heard word once • interference: personal associations • Serial position effect: words in the middle?

  4. Schemas mental model of an object or event that includes knowledge as well as beliefs and expectations.  • Suppose a high school junior visits her sister’s college dorm room for the first time. • She’s never been to a dorm before, but she’s seen dorms in movies, read about them, and heard her friends talking about them. • When she describes the room to another friend after the visit, she comments on how many clothes her sister had and how many huge books were on her sister’s desk. • In reality, the books were hidden under the bed, not out in the open. The clothes were something she actually saw, while the books were part of her dorm-room schema.

  5. UM TDOL S I K U H E L R I N A P A E S N I Y R V T I E U B A Q S I E N U O E T L UM TOLD HUSKIE AIRPLANE UNIVERSITY QUESTIONABLE ChunkingProcess of grouping items to make them easier to remember

  6. Chunking • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. • Often it will occur automatically. Take 10 seconds to try to remember this number list: 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Chunk- from Goonies Now, try again: 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 What are some other examples of chunking?

  7. MEMORY- 3 processes • Encode…take in, acquire • YOU MUST PAY ATTENTION • Store…retain • Retrieve…bring into consciousness

  8. Encoding • processing of information into the long-term storage. Typing info into a computer Getting a guys/girl’s name at a party

  9. Storage • The retention of encoded material over time. Trying to remember his/her name when you leave the party. Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.

  10. Retrieval • The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Seeing her the next day and calling him/her the wrong name (retrieval failure). Finding your document and opening it up.

  11. Stage Model of Memory Level of processing (deep vs. shallow) elaborative reh & effortful processing chunking. mneumonics. self referencing visual imagery overlearning maintenance rehearsal Sensory Memory STM LTM attention decay theory /transience Interference- retro vs. pro active Repression suppression retrieval cues

  12. STAGE MODEL of Memory… • Sensory memory-exact copy • Iconic • Echoic • Short term memory-working memory • + 7 bits of info • Phonetically • Sensitive to interruption or interference • Long term memory-permanent storehouse • Meaningful, important • Endless storage capacity • Semantic network model (organized & connected through association and clustering)

  13. ATTENTION!!!! Memory: hippocampus Once forged, disassembled into various sensory components Distributed throughout brain Later, when you think of person components are drawn together again.

  14. Encoding: Getting Information In… What We Encode • Levels of Processing • Visual encoding- see • Acoustic encoding- hear • Semantic encoding- meaning • Self-reference effect-make it meaningful to you! “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” – Confucius

  15. Tricks to Encoding Mnemonic Devices = memory tricks • Often use imagery (peg word, method of loci, “hippo on campus…”) • May use chunking (King Philip Came Over for Great Spaghetti, SOHCOHTOA, My very earnest mother just served us nine [pizzas], ROY G. BIV) Give me some more examples…. Links to examples of mnemonic devices.

  16. Mnemonic devices • Acronyms • FACE • Narrative • Make a story • Method of loci • Visualize items in a large bizarre way

  17. Types of Encoding Processing Automatic Effortful Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Can become automatic through practice • Unconscious encoding of incidental information • Sequence of days events • Parallel processing • (brain property)

  18. Encoding: Getting Information In: Automatic Processing • Space • You can picture where the information is in the book • Time • You can retrace the steps of your day • Frequency • Didn’t I just see you in the halls? • Well-learned Language • You can read without actually reading • Parallel processing

  19. Encoding: Getting Information In Effortful processing: • Rehearsal (conscious repetition) • Elaborative vs. maintenance rehearsal • Learning curve: gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as a result of learning • Ebbinghaus: forgetting curve ~ decline of retention over time

  20. Encoding: Getting Information In • Overlearning- Reviewing things you already know, enhances retention. • Spacing effect- • We increase long-term retention when we study or practice over time. • Massed practice vs. Distributed practice • Don’t CRAM! • Testing effect- repeated quizzing increases recall • Answering practice test questions about material you have studied is a useful strategy for becoming aware of what you do not yet know~

  21. Serial position effect Dog Red Cow Food Egg New Toy Tape Test Box Book Year House Box Light Fart Game Ring Flower Water Music

  22. Serial Positioning Effect • REMEMBER WORDS: tend to remember beginning & end of a list best. • Primacy effect • Recency effect • Primacy effect is stronger than recency effect if there is a delay between the list and recall. • FORGET MIDDLE • Unless…? Words remembered Order on list

  23. Which is the correct penny? Encoding failure?

  24. Storage: Retaining information ~Sensory Memory • George Sperling • Iconic • Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli • Echoic Memory • Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli • If you were listening… repeat what I just said…

  25. George Sperling: Sensory Memory Q J B S R G Z A I W F H

  26. Q J B W • S R G F • Z A I H

  27. bed • rest • awake • tired • dream • wake • snooze • blanket • doze • slumber • snore • nap • peace • yawn • drowsy Remember these words

  28. Jury • Oath • Judge • Courtroom • Plea • Attorney • Law • Crime • Guilty • Robe • Defendant • Innocent • Sentence • Prosecutor • Witness • Jail • Duty Remember these words

  29. Debrief How many of you listed LAWYER? Memory = active reconstruction *When trying to recall, we create a schema and fill in what we think belongs *serial position effect -primacy -recency Memory also suffers from MISINFORMATION EFFECT

  30. ONLY SIDE A LOOKS.

  31. DIRECTIONS. AS EACH WORD FLASHES COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS IN THE WORD.

  32. ONLY SIDE B LOOKS.

  33. DIRECTIONS. AS EACH WORD FLASHES, DECIDE IF THE ITEM WOULD BE USEFUL AT COLLEGE.

  34. DEBRIEF Side A told: count the number of letters in each word. Side B told: which items could you use at college? Side B made use of… a) Elaborative rehearsal b) Self-reference effect c) Visual imagery

  35. ONLY SIDE A LOOKS.

  36. DIRECTIONS. AS EACH WORD FLASHES COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS IN THE WORD.

  37. REFRIGERATOR PLIERS CUPCAKES LICENSE BOOKS STRING RULER STEREO PHOTOGRAPH COMPUTER SHOVEL CARROT SHOES PHONE WALLET PAINT

  38. ONLY SIDE B LOOKS.

  39. DIRECTIONS. AS EACH WORD FLASHES, DECIDE IF THE ITEM WOULD BE USEFUL AT COLLEGE.

  40. REFRIGERATOR PLIERS CUPCAKES LICENSE BOOKS STRING RULER STEREO PHOTOGRAPH COMPUTER SHOVEL CARROT SHOES PHONE WALLET PAINT

  41. DEBRIEF Side A told: count the number of letters in each word. Side B told: which items could you use at college? Side B made use of… a) Elaborative rehearsal b) Self-reference effect c) Visual imagery

  42. 216964615199725246801296460894

  43. Breakdown of Long Term Memory Explicit & Implicit Declarative Semantic Episodic Procedural

  44. Semantic- Names of objects Days / weeks Simple math skills Mental dictionary, encyclopedia of basic knowledge -impersonal objects -hippocampus Episodic- Autobiographical record of personal experiences. Stores life’s events *more easily forgotten Declarative - conscious

  45. Procedural -unconscious • know how • Learned actions/skills • Automatic • Unconscious retention • cerebellum • Easy retrieval

  46. Declarative • Factual information • Expressed in words or symbols • Names, faces, words, ideas • Divided into…

  47. To summarize….

  48. Name the Seven Dwarves

  49. Name the seven dwarfs Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Lazy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Shorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Snoopy

  50. Seven Dwarves Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful