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  1. MEMORY Involves an active, information-processing system that receives, organises, stores and recovers information. Page 286-287

  2. Study Design: KEY KNOWLEDGE Mechanism of memory formation: • the neuron in memory formation including the role of axons, dendrites, synapses and neurotransmitters • role of the temporal lobe including the hippocampus and the amygdala • consolidation theory • memory decline over the lifespan • amnesia resulting from brain trauma and neurodegenerative diseases including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

  3. the neuron in memory formation including the role of axons, dendrites, synapses andneurotransmitters (page 334-336) • Neurons receive information from other neurons, process this information and communicate it to other neurons. Why study it in memory? • Memory is formed due to biochemical changes in synapses in response to different neurotransmitters (chemicals), where neural connections are removed and remade. Activity for structure of the neuron and the different parts Read through different parts of the brain Define: dendrite, axon, synapse and neurotransmitter Complete match up activity Complete multiple choice activity If you’re still confused watch the following:

  4. Structure of the neuron Refer to handout: Neurons and Neurotransmitters in memory and learning (page 269 Oxford) Nervous System – Creating a model of a Neuron Activity Comparing the Brain to the Neuron -

  5. role of the temporal lobe including the hippocampus and the amygdala • The hippocampus transfers declarative information to other relevant parts of the brain for permanent storage as long-term memory. • In each hemisphere, the amygdala is located almost directly behind the temple and beneath the cortex of the temporal lobe. It regulates emotions such as fear and aggression and plays a more general role in the formation of emotional memory. The amygdala has been found to have a special role in the memory for emotions shown on faces (Markoswitschet al. 1994). The amygdala also has an important role because the emotions it regulates enhance the memorability of an event which is stated as declarative memory. Research suggests that for declarative memory with emotional content, such as winning an important sports competition, the amygdala has a role in activating the hippocampus and therefore enhancing the consolidation of the declarative memory (Garrett 2009). • They found that the hippocampus was active for explicit memory tasks but other parts of the brain were active for procedural memory tasks—for example, the cerebellum was, in part, responsible for remembering motor skill tasks

  6. In order for new information to be transferred effectively from STM to LTM there needs to be a time period in which these memories are able to stabilise without being disrupted. Physical changes occur to the neurons in the brain when something new is being learned and immediately following learning for a period of time as the new info sets (consolidates) in memory. If memory is disrupted during consolidation phase (stabilisation of changes in the brain’s neurons) info may not be processed in LTM & will be lost. The consolidation process takes 30 minutes. Consolidation Theory To date, most research on the consolidation process has focused on declarative memory. No clear evidence has emerged to indicate that a process of consolidation happens for non-declarative memory. PHYSICAL CHANGE NO DISRUPTION TIME

  7. memory decline over the lifespan • Effect on Short Term Memory (S.T.M) - Dependent on the nature of the task.If the task is relatively simple (e.g. remembering a list of words) then STM is not affected by age. If the task is complicated and requires divided attention or manipulation of information in working memory (e.g. remembering that list of words alphabetically whilst recalling numbers), then STM may be affected by age related factors. • Causes - General slowing of the nervous system and neural processes. Often referred to as • “Cognitive Slowing”. The ability to recall information tends to decrease in the elderly, while the ability to recognise information tends to remain unchanged. • Effect on Long Term Memory (L.T.M) - Dependent on the type LTM of memory system.Semantic memories (facts of the world) and Procedural memories (how to memories) generally tend to remain intact whilst Episodic memories (past experiences and episodes) tend to decline as people age. Effect on Learning New InformationOlder people take longer to learn new information, irrespective to which LTM Systems that information is admitted to. • Older people do not encode new information with as much precision and detail as younger people. • Causes - Lack of confidence in their memory and Lack of motivation to learn new things.

  8. Key Knowledge Models for explaining human memory: • Atkinson-Shiffrin’smulti-store model of memory including maintenance and elaborative rehearsal, serial position effect and chunking • Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch’s model of working memory: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, episodic buffer • levels of processing as informed by Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart • organisation of long-term memory including declarative (episodic and semantic) and procedural • memory, and semantic network theory

  9. Remembering: 3 key processes Page 290 • Encoding is the entire process of converting information into a useable form or code that can be stored in memory • Storage is the retention of information overtime. • Retrieval is the process of locating and recovering the stored information from memory so that we are consciously aware of it.

  10. Atkinson-Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory including maintenance and elaborative

  11. Measures of Retention • Memory is measured in 3 ways. RECALL • This involves being asked to reproduce information with no or minimal external cues. • Free recall- retrieval of items in any order without cues or prompts. • Cued recall- retrieval of items in any order but with cues to aid retrieval • Serial or ordered recall- retrieval of items in the same order in which they were presented.

  12. Cont... Measures of Retention Recognition Relearning • Correctly identifying or selecting previously learned information from a set of alternatives • Which of the following are names of Walt Disney’s 7 dwarfs? • Bashful Sneezy • Happy Doc • Grumpy Grouchy • Pop • Sleepy • Goofy • Dopey • Also called the savings method, relearning information previously memorised, and calculating the amount of information saved (or retained) in memory from the original learning. No. of trials (or time) No. of trials (or time) Original Learning _ Relearning _______________________________ = Savings Score No. of trials for Original learning (or time)

  13. Relative sensitivity of each measure of retention RELEARNING RECOGNITION RECALL ____________________________________________________most sensitiveleast sensitive The Relationship between the stages of memory

  14. Sensory Memory Sensory memory is a type of memory that stores sensory information in a raw form for very short periods of time. • The 2 types of sensory memory most extensively explored are: • Iconic memory: all information held in the visual sensory register. • Echoic memory: all information held in the auditory sensory register.

  15. Sensory memory is the initial stage of the memory system in which all the stimuli that bombard our senses are retained in their original sensory form (exact copies & not encoded). Sensory information remains in sensory memory just long enough for us to attend to and select the information to be transferred to short term memory. Selective attention is an automatic process that allows us to attend to some information entering our memory system and to ignore the rest. As soon as it is attended to, information transfers to STM.

  16. Short Term Memory

  17. REHEARSAL: Maintain information in STM by preventing it from being lost through decay (not being used) or displaced (being pushed out) by other material. Maintenance rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal • Relies on the conscious recitation of information in a rote fashion. It can be verbal or non-verbal. Eg either repeating info over and over in one’s head (sub-vocally) or by saying the info aloud over and over again (vocally). • Easily affected by distraction which can displace information from STM. • Is the process of linking new information in a meaningful way with information already stored in memory or with other new information, to aid in its storage and retrieval from LTM. • Is a more active process than maintenance rehearsal. • It is a better method for remembering information because that info is encoded well.

  18. Long Term Memory • LTM is a relatively permanent memory system which has an unlimited capacityfor storing information for a relatively unlimited duration. • LTM stores information semantically. ie. encoding is elaborative, according to meaning. TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY • Procedural memory – is the memory of actions and skills that have been learned previously and involves knowing “how to do something” eg. how to ride a bike or how to bake a cake. They are also called implicit memories because it is often difficult to recall when or how we learned to perform the sequence of actions required to do something . • Declarative memory – is the memory of specific facts or events that can be brought consciously to mind and explicitly stated or ‘declared’ eg. Identifying a type of flower or remembering what you ate for dinner last night.

  19. TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY PROCEDURAL MEMORY DECLARATIVE MEMORY • Memory for actions or skills, knowing “how” • Memory for facts and events in the world, knowing “that”

  20. TWO TYPES OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY EPISODIC MEMORY Memories which contain autobiographical information about personal events and experiences in one’s life and the context in which they occurred. SEMANTIC MEMORY Memories which involve specialised knowledge of factual information about the world. This includes general knowledge , academic knowledge (of that learned at school) as well as the meaning of words.

  21. Semantic Network Theory • Proposes that LTM is organised systematically into hierarchical networks of concepts (nodes), arranged as interrelated categories and sub-categories. Information within the nodes is interconnected via meaningful links. • A shorter link between two concepts in a semantic network indicates a strong association between concepts; while a longer link between two concepts illustrates a more distant association. • Activating more nodes increases the chances of success and speed of retrieval of an item.

  22. Long term memory: Semantic Network Theory > nodes—the named units of information > links—the lines showing the relationships between nodes (the shorter the link, the closer the relationship) > hierarchical structure—several nodes on the lowest level form part of one node at the next level up, and so on.

  23. SERIAL POSITION EFFECT • The serial position effect displays the tendency for recall of items in a serial list as being superior for items at the beginning of the list due to the primacy effect and if tested immediately after presentation of the list for items at the end of the list due to the recency effect (than for those in the middle). • What causes the serial position effect ? If recall occurs immediately after a list has been learned the last few items are remembered best because they are still in STM. The first few items are remembered well because they receive more attention and rehearsal than other items and are therefore transferred into LTM.

  24. Working Memory: The active STM • An active part of memory where information you are consciously aware of is actively “worked on” thought about and processed in a variety of ways. • Baddeley (1999, cited in Grivas, Down & Carter, 2004) proposed working memory consists of 3 sub-systems: • The Phonological (or Articulatory) Loop (verbal working memory) stores speech based information and is comprised of 2 parts: The phonological memory is a limited number of sounds (phonemes) such as words for a short period of time of about 2 seconds. The articulatory sub-vocal rehearsal – silently repeating words. Prevention of this results in rapid forgetting.

  25. Working Memory – By Baddeley and Hitch (focused on STM)

  26. Working Memory cont... The Visuo-spatial sketchpad: • holds ‘mental pictures’ temporarily. • is responsible for the manipulation of visual and spatial information. • Such as the location and nature of objects in the environment. ie. Knowing exactly where on the kitchen bench we have placed a cupcake and cup when we turn to pour a coffee from the perculator. The Central Executive: • Attends to information and decides what should be done with it (it plans and coordinates). • Integrates info from the verbal and visual storage systems as well as information retrieved from LTM. • It is responsible for suppressing irrelevant information from our conscious thinking.

  27. amnesia resulting from brain trauma Retrograde, can’t remember some prior memories Retrograde amnesia is difficulty in recalling previously stored memories. Usually, retrograde amnesia involves the loss of memories from a period before the time when the person’s brain was damaged. Patients usually have no memory of the period just prior to the injury, but sometimes the amnesia can go back several years. Memories Affected Accident/Injury Retrograde Amnesia – Scott Balzan

  28. neurodegenerative diseases including dementia andAlzheimer’s disease Case studies and modern brain scanning techniques show that damage to the temporal lobe and hippocampus is often related to anterograde amnesia. These structures are involved in the consolidation process, especially for encoding and storage of long-term declarative memories. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to encode and store new memories. Typically, people can retrieve memories they had prior to the trauma but cannot learn anything new. This amnesia is commonly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Memories affected afterwards Anterograde Amnesia Memories affected after

  29. Dementia Dementia refers to a disorder affecting higher mental functions (Morris & Baddeley 1988). It can occur in various forms and may be caused by disease or brain damage. Dementia can be caused by a variety of factors, such as reduced blood supply to the brain or toxins such as alcohol.

  30. Alzheimers’s This neurodegenerative disease occurs mostly in old age and involves gradual, severe memory loss, confusion, impaired attention, disordered thinking and depression (Kalat2008). It involves both anterograde and retrograde amnesia because the disease affects both the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. The earliest symptom is usually impaired declarative memory, where the patient has difficulty remembering events from the day before, forgets names and has difficulty finding the right word when speaking. Next, the patient might repeat stories or questions, and eventually will fail to recognise familiar people and family members. (watch video) What is Alzheimers? (GREAT VIDEO ON DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE BRAIN) (to get more information about Alzheimer’s) An example of Alzheimer’s from the USA

  31. Karsokoff’s syndrome This form of brain deterioration is a syndrome that is almost always caused by chronic alcoholism. The hippocampus and temporal lobes are unaffected but the frontal lobes deteriorate. This deterioration comes from a deficiency in the vitamin thiamine (B1), which is caused by two factors: 1 the alcoholic consumes most of his/her calories in alcohol and therefore suffers malnutrition 2 the alcohol reduces the amount of absorption of thiamine in the stomach. 3 Thiamine therapy can reverse