Memory and Working Memory An introduction
40 • What does the number 40 have to do with memory? • Forgetting is normal
Why We Forget? • Inattention -- distracted, poor encoding Suggestion -- we are influenced by other’s comments, ads or environmentMisattribution -- we assume that something belongs in a group Erosion-- weakened by inactivitySubject Bias -- prejudiced by false beliefsSubsequent recall-- we change our storyWordstruck-- tip of tongue/stressed
Types of Memory SPEWS • Semantic (fact memory) • Procedural (skill memory) • Episodic (episode memory) • Working (thinking memory) • Spatial (map memory)
Answer these questions • Bananas live in the water: True or False • Flowers smell nice: True or False • Dogs have four legs: True or False
Now • What is the last word from each sentence, in order?
For memory we must: • 3 Stages: • Encode • Store • Retrieve
Working Memory • Holds data in mind temporarily while the brain manipulates it.
"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information" George Miller, 1956
Working memory is a system for temporarily storing and managing the information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks such as learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Working memory is involved in the information-processing functions such as encoding and retrieving data.
Central Executive The central executive is a flexible system responsible for the control and regulation of cognitive processes. It has the following functions: • binding information from a number of sources into coherent episodes • coordination of the slave systems (episodic buffer) • shifting between tasks or retrieval strategies • selective attention and inhibition
Phonological Loop • The phonological loop (or "articulatory loop") as a whole deals with sound or phonological information. • It consists of two parts: a short-term phonological store with auditory memory traces that are subject to rapid decay and an articulatory rehearsal component that can revive the memory traces. • Deals with spoken and written material
Visio-Spatial Sketchpad • The visuospatial sketchpad is assumed to hold information about what we see. It is used in the temporary storage and manipulation of spatial and visual information, such as remembering shapes and colors, or the location or speed of objects in space.
Episodic Buffer • Links information to form units and time sequencing • Links the information to go to long term memory • Goal is to get the central executive working with other areas.
Math time Use mental math: what is 11x15
Math Time • Use mental math • What is 137 x 624
KEYS TO WORKING MEMORY • Mental workspace to remember and WORK with information • It is limited • Once information is gone it is gone forever • Many researchers claim it is the #1 predictor of academic success
So What? Neurons that fire together, wire together! Classroom goal is to remember information – so we must make stronger connections.
Experience your neurons that are wired together • While sitting, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles • While doing this, draw the number 6 in the air with your right hand
What happened to your right foot? • It changed direction • It slowed down • It stopped rotating • To change this neural pathway takes a ton of work. That’s how strong we make connections in the brain.
Use it or lose it • Point = make learning as strong as those neural pathways • What can we do in our classroom to make the same connections
Next Week • Goal of next week: • Pruning of memories • Learn strategies to help students remember what you teach • What does it look like when a child has a problem with working memory • Discuss what might mask a working memory issue
I’m taking this class for credit what do I have to do? Non credit people feel free to join in the discussion
Next Steps • If you want, watch any video links to help understand memory. • Post at least 1 question and 1 comment in the forum. • Respond to at least one classmate (and no more than 3). • Reflect on how this impacts your teaching in 100 words or less