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Memory

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Memory

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  1. Memory The Phenomenon of Memory

  2. 5 minute quick write • In your notes, list all of the things you would not be able to do if you did not have a properly functioning memory

  3. Desk • Golf club • Stapler • Meatloaf • Basketball • Cow • Tomato • Pencil • Banana • Horse • Baseball • Paper clip • Celery • Soccer ball • Squirrel • Dog

  4. Memory test • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOr8ryJUOyQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

  5. Printer • Cat • Sandwich • Owl • Computer • T-shirt • Spaghetti • Sandals • Lion • Broccoli • Keyboard • Shorts • Elephant • Filing cabinet • Apple • Sunglasses

  6. What is memory? • What is memory? • Memory • persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information

  7. The Structure of Memory • Information Processing Model • Memory involves • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval • A memory is not stored as one object

  8. Information Processing • Encoding • the processing of information into the memory system • Storage • the retention of encoded information over time • Retrieval • process of getting information out of memory

  9. Three types of memory • Sensory Memory • the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system • Short-Term Memory • activated memory that holds a few items briefly • Long-Term Memory • the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

  10. Sensory Memory • The initial recording of sensory information in the memory system • Iconic Memory • A fleeting photographic memory • Lasts only a few tenths of a second

  11. Attention to important or novel information Sensory input Encoding External events Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Encoding Retrieving A Model of Memory

  12. Memory Encoding: Getting Information In

  13. Encoding Effortful Automatic How We Encode

  14. How We Encode • Automatic Processing • unconscious encoding of incidental information • space • time • frequency • well-learned information • word meanings • we can learn automatic processing • reading backwards

  15. How we encode • .citamotua emoceb nac gnissecorp luftroffE • Effortful processing can become automatic. • .ecitcarp elttil a sekat tsuj tI • It just takes a little practice. • .siht ta retteb gnitteg era ouy that ees ydaerla nac ouY • You can already see that you are getting better at this.

  16. How We Encode • Effortful Processing • requires attention and conscious effort • Rehearsal • conscious repetition of information • to maintain it in consciousness • to encode it for storage

  17. Effortful Processing • Studied by Hermann Ebbinghaus • Principles of effortful processing • The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning • Spacing effect • Serial position effect

  18. JIH, BAZ, FUB, YOX, SUJ, XIR, CAX, LEQ, VUM, PID, KEL, WAV, TUV, ZOF, GEK, HIW

  19. What We Encode • We encode meaning • We encode imagery • We encode organization

  20. Encoding Meaning • Semantic Encoding • encoding of meaning • including meaning of words • Acoustic Encoding • encoding of sound • especially sound of words • Visual Encoding • encoding of picture images

  21. Encoding Meaning

  22. Encoding Meaning • Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

  23. Encoding Imagery • Imagery • mental pictures • a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding • Mnemonics • memory aids • especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

  24. Mnemonics • Method of Loci • Peg word • Chunking

  25. Organizing Information • Chunking • organizing items into familiar, manageable units • like horizontal organization • 1 7 7 6 1 4 9 2 1 8 1 2 1 9 4 1 • (1776) (1492) (1812) (1941) • often occurs automatically • use of acronyms • HOMES--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior • ARITHMETIC--ARat In Tom’s House Might Eat Tom’s Ice Cream

  26. Encoding: Chunking • Organized information is more easily recalled

  27. Encoding (automatic or effortful) Meaning (semantic Encoding) Imagery (visual Encoding) Organization Chunks Hierarchies Encoding: Hierarchies • Hierarchies: complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories