Memory Or A lecture you’re sure not to forget
Memory The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model The Environment Sensation Sensory Registers Consciousness Short Term Memory Encoding Retrieval Long Term Memory
Sensory Registers G R F K B Y P W V M S O
Sensory Registers H Q N D L A J C U F B Q
Short Term Memory Also called Working Memory Whatever information is in conscious awareness. Any information that we are remembering or manipulating occurs in STM.
Short Term Memory 7 2 + - A typical individual’s digit span
Demo Tired Pillow Snooze Drowsy Naptime Weary Bedspread Slumber Doze Dream Sandman Blanket Siesta Moonlight Bedspread Nighttime
Serial Position Primacy Effect Recall % Serial Position of word
Serial Position Recency Effect Recall % Serial Position of word
False Memory How many of you remembered the word sleep? (It wasn’t actually on the list)
Parallel Distributed Processing Sleep Blanket Tired Nighttime Slumber Awake Party
Levels of Processing Structural – Is the word in capital letters ? Phonemic – Does the word rhyme with “deep”? Semantic – What does the word mean? Personal – How does the word relate to you?
Encoding Tips Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order): XCI AFB IVC RDN AIB MQZ
Encoding Tips Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):
Encoding Tips Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order): XCI AFB IVC RDN AIB MQZ X CIA FBI VCR DNA IBM QZ
Encoding Tips Imagery To remember:“Monkey, briefcase, spiral, dentist”
Encoding Tips Mnemonics: Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
State Dependency The surrounding environment can be used as a cue for memory
Types of Retrieval Recall – Coming up with an item from scratch Recognition – Identifying an item from a list of items Cue Dependent Recall – Coming up with an item after a hint is given
Context Dependency Try and Remember these paired associates Strawberry – Jam Boxing – Punch Rip – Tear Tennis – Ace Clock – Wind Small – Minute
Context Dependency Crying – Tear Fruit – Punch Picture – Frame Puppy – Kitten Monkey – Banana Traffic – Jam Jetstream – Wind Glacier – Snow Poker – Ace Hour – Minute Hiking – Trail Butter – Knife
Forgetting The Decay Theory Interference Theory:Retroactive Interference Proactive Interference New replaces old Old replaces new
Conclusions 1) Short term memory is limited to ~7 items, but long term memory is unlimited 2) Because of a Parallel Distributed Processing Mechanism, the way to a better memory is adding lots of cues 3) Forgetting is due primarily to interference, when cues are blocked.
Evaluate my Teaching • What about my teaching did you dislike • What about my teaching did you like • What was your favorite lecture • What was your least favorite lecture • What grade would you give me (A+ -- F) • Honestly – were the jokes funny?